Noor Amelia
Flashcards by Noor Amelia, updated more than 1 year ago
Noor Amelia
Created by Noor Amelia over 5 years ago



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Third line of defence Adaptive immune response
Adaptive Immune Response 1) specific 2) immune components are fully activated only after infection starts 3) Response magnitude is higher in the second subsequent encounter compared to the first 4) Immunological memory is stored
Organs of the lymphatic system Adenoids, Tonsils, Thymus, Lymph nodes, Lymphatic vessels, Spleen, Bone marrow
i) Development of T and B cells Lymphocyte development diverges into two cell lines : T cells and B cells
Antigen-independent maturation occurs in two sites T cells in thymus and B cells in bone marrow
The function of surface markers or receptors is a) Bind to receptors on other cells b) bind to antigens c) Transmit and receives messages
Common receptor molecules a) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) b) cluster of differentiation (CD) c) Antigen-specific receptors
Clonal deletion occurs to eliminate lymphocytes that recognise self-antigens
ii) Presentation of antigens Antigens : Are substances that can provoke immune response
Antigenicity of a substance can be determined by : Size, Complexity, Foreigness
Antigens are presented by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) , such as : Macrophages, Dendritic cells and B cells
Role of Antigen-Presenting Cell - phagocytosis of enemy cell - fusion of lysosome and phagosome -enzymes start to degrade enemy cell - enemy cell broken into small fragments -fragments of antigens presented on APC surface -leftover fragments released by exocytosis
Antigens are presented to : antigen-specific receptors
On T cells, there are called : T-cell receptors
On B cells, the receptors are called : Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies
Immunoglobulins (Ig) has many classes : Examples: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD
Variable region and constant region of antibodies
iii) T-cell response Antigens presented on APCs will activate T and B cells
For T cells, this activation stimulates their differentiation into : - subtypes of T helper cells - memory cells - regulatory T cells -cytotoxic T cells
Process of T-cell activation
iv) B-cell response - sometimes can be activated without the help of T helper cells ( T-independent activation) -but most of the times, B cells requires activation by the T helper cells
Following activation, B cells differentiate into : - memory B cells - regulatory B cells - plasma cells
Memory B cells Store immunological memory
Regulatory B cells Regulate other cells to prevent excessive inflammation and autoimmunity
Plasma cells Launch billions of antibodies to attack the invaders
Antibodies disable the targets through: - neutralisation - opsonisation -agglutination - antitoxin action
Neutralisation block the receptor on a surface or the targets by neutralising them
Opsonisation coat the targets and helping phagocytes to recognize them
Agglutination link the targets with one another into large clumps, immobilizing then and enhancing their phagocytosis
Antitoxin action bind to toxins produces by the targets and rendering them harmless
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