Acids and Bases

Niha Waseem
Flashcards by Niha Waseem, updated more than 1 year ago
Niha Waseem
Created by Niha Waseem over 5 years ago
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2016 Unit Test 3 [term 1]

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Question Answer
Define ACIDS Substances that donate hydrogen ions [H+] when dissolved in water
Name three inorganic acids! - Hydrochloric Acid [HCl] - Sulphuric Acid [H2SO4] - Nitric Acid [HNo3]
Name two organic acids! - Ethanoic solutions found in vinegar - Citric acid found in lemon juice
When is a solution said to be acidic? When there are more hydrogen ions that hydroxide ions
Define bases The chemical opposites of acids
What happens when a base is added to an acid? It neutralizes or cancels out the acidity
Give 5 examples of bases! 1} Copper [II] Oxide (CuO) 2} Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) 3} Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3) 4} Calcium Hydrogen Carbonate (Ca[HCO3]2 5} Ammonia solution (NH3)
Define alkalis Bases which are soluble in water
Give 4 examples of alkalis! Sodium Hydroxide - NaOH Potassium Hydroxide - KOH Calcium Hydroxide - Ca(OH)2 Ammonia solution - NH3
When is a solution said to be alkaline? When there are more hydroxide ions that hydrogen ions
Acid + Metal = ? Salt + Hydrogen gas
Acid + Metal Oxide = ? Salt + Water
Acid + Carbonate = ? Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide gas
Distinguish between strong and weak acids A strong acid ionises completely to produce hydrogen ions in water, while a weak acid gets partially ionised to produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
Give 4 uses of Acids! - Strong acids are used to make fertilizers, detergents, and paints - Acids are also used to remove ruse [e.g. sulfuric acid, hydochloric acid] - Acids are used as food preservatives [e.g. benzoic, citric and ethanoic acid]
Give 4 uses of Alkalis! - Alkalis are present in a number of household products [e.g. drain cleaners, oven cleaners] - Sodium Hydroxide: manufacture of soap - Slaked lime (Ca[OH]2): treatment of acidic soil - Milk of Magnesia (Mg[OH]2): used in antacid tablets to neutralize acids in stomach
Define Neutralization The reaction between an acid and a base to form salt and water only
What happens when an acid is added to an alkali? - the pH decreases - the conductivity of the solution decreases, as the H+ and OH- ions from water molecules - temperature of solution increases
Name two ways Neutralization reactions take place in agriculture - To treat acidic soil: lime fertilizers such as powdered lime [CaO], limestone [CaCO3], or ashes of burnt wood are added to the soil to neutralize its acidity - To treat basic soil: treatment is using compost of rotting vegetables or leaves. acidic gas from decomposition neutralizes alkalis in basic soils
Name two ways Neutralization reactions take place in industries - to treat acidic wastes: water from electroplating industry contains acids [e.g. sulfuric acid] which are neutralized with lime before being discharged into rivers and streams - to treat acidic gas
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