Nutrition

Jezebel
Flashcards by Jezebel, updated more than 1 year ago
Jezebel
Created by Jezebel about 7 years ago
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HERS 205

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Question Answer
Essential nutrients Need it for growth and maintenance, we can't make enough of them.
Nonessential nutrients Don't need, body can produce amounts needed.
Organic foods Chemically organic: Carbon in it (carb, protein, lipids, vitamins). Inorganic: No carbon (water/mins) Organic foods: Grown with limited to no additional chemicals
Six groups of essential nutrients (not food groups) Carbohydrates, fats/oils (lipids), protein, vitamins, minerals, water
Groups on non-essential nutrients Alcohol, phytonutrients
Macronutrients (nutrients you need a lot of) HENCE MACRO Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, alcohol
Micronutrients Minerals and vitamins, phytonutrients
Primary sources of energy Carbohydrates and fat
Secondary source of energy Protein
Types of carbohydrates in diet Complex: Fiber and starch Simple: Monosaccharides and disaccharides
Digestible and undigestible carbohydrates Digestible: Starch and disaccarides Undigestable: Fiber and monosaccarides
Type of carbohydrate that is absorbed through the intestine wall Monosaccharides only. Size matters.
Lipids Nutrients that are fat soluble (get along with fats). Nutrients: Cholesterol, fats (fatty acids and trigylcerides)
Fats and oils Nutrients: Fatty acids and trigylcerides only, no cholesterol
Who can you not gain weight from even if you overeat in them? Vitamins, minerals, fiber (because we can't digest or absorb it), and cholesterol Don't have energy, calories
Low intensity exercise Burn more fat less carbs
High intensity exercise More carbs, less fat
You do not get energy from all lipids, but you do get energy from all fats (should make sense to you)
Types of Lipids in diet Cholesterol -Sat. Fat -Animal products (butter included)
Types of fats in diet Vegetable sources, animal products, milk, butter, lard
Type of lipid that is absorbed? Fatty acids
Primary purpose of protein in diet Supports tissue growth, repair, and maintenence
Type of protein that is absorbed? Amino acids
Macronutrient recommendations Carbohydrates: 45-65% Fats: 20-35% Proteins: 10-35%
Micronutrients: Vitamins Fat soluble: ADEK Vitamins A, D, E, and K. Water soluble: Vitamin C and B vitamins
Minerals How much do you need of them? 1) Major Minerals: Needed in amnts more than 100mg/day *Memorize these only. Calcium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, chloride, magnesium, sulfur 2) Trace minerals: Needed in amnts less than 100mg/day
Caloric density Amount of calories per gram of ____. -Nutrient, food, meal
Caloric Density of Nutrients Carbohydrates 4 kcal/g Protein 4 kcal/g Fat 9 kcal/g Alcohol 7 kcal/g
Nutrient Density Amount of micronutrients per cal. # of micro/# of cals = ___. Easiest way to increase ND is to add Fruits and Vegetables to your diet
Energy density High energy density usually means low nutrient density. Low energy density high nutrient density Nuts can be an exception
Cells Most basic living thing that consumes nutrients and eliminates waste
Cell membrane Made of phospholipids- fatty acids Made of cholesterol ^ these two make up lipids Made of protein- amino acids Made of glycoproteins- amino acids + carbohydrates
What does a glycoprotein entail? Amino acids and carbohydrates
Nucleus DNA is housed. DNA- made from nucleotides, nucleotides made from amino acids.
Organelles Example: Mitochondria, where energy is made within a cell. ALL organelles have a membrane (go back 2 slides to see what made of) In addition: Have enzymes
Enzymes Little machinery that perform tasks in our body. Enzymes proteins, proteins made of amino acids
Biological hierarchy Nutrients -> cells -> tissues -> organs -> organ system
Why do we NEED nutrients daily? Growth, repair, maintenance, energy. Growth and repair certain conditions only
What process is everyone going through? Maintenence
Main function of carbohydrates in our life? Primary: Energy Secondary: Glycoproteins for cell membranes
Fats Lipids, Primary: energy Primary: building things like cell membranes
Proteins Primary: Build things, (enzymes and organelles) Secondary: Energy
Digestion Goal: To break food down to smallest nutrient to absorb, through enzymes Catabolism: breaking down
Absorbtion Getting those smallest nutrient into our body through GI wall
Catabolism Breaking down
Anabolism Building things, we have enzymes to do both
Enzymes Break bonds so we can absorb
General enzymes responsible for macronutrient digestion Carbohydrates- Amylases, break down starch to monosacharrides (they get absorbed) Example of monosacharide = glucose
Fats Lipase responsible. Breaks down: Triglycerides to fatty acids and monoglycerides And cholesterol
Protein Proteases, break down proteins to amino acids
Which macronutrient isn't being digested in the mouth? Protein
Stomach Can digest everything except carbohydrates, hydrochloric acid kills carb enzymes
Mucosa cells In small intestine who is responsible for absorbing nutrients
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