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Composition of cells; key terminology

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Question Answer
accessory pigments a pigment that absorbs light energy and transfers it to chlorophyll
active site the part of an enzyme at which catalysis of the substrate acts
adenine a purine base, one of the fundamental components of nucleic acids, forming a base pair with thymine in DNA and pairing with uracil in RNA
aerobic cellular respiration the breakdown of glucose to simple, inorganic compounds in the presence of oxygen, and with the release of ATP
amino acids nitrogen-containing compounds that are the building blocks of proteins
anabolism the synthesis of new compounds from simpler ones
anaerobic respiration occurs without the involvement of oxygen
autotrophic an organism that can produce its own food from simple inorganic substances
bonds forces of attraction between atoms that bring them together to form molecules
carbohydrates class of organic molecules that includes starch, sugar and cellulose
catabolism the breakdown of compounds to release energy
cellular respiration process of converting chemical energy of food into a form usable by cells, typically ATP
cellulose complex carbohydrate composed of chains of glucose molecules; the main component of plant cell walls
chemical energy energy stored in substances that become available when certain types of chemical reactions occur
chitin carbohydrate material present in the exoskeleton of arthropods and also in the cell wall of some fungi
chlorophyll green pigment required for photosynthesis that traps the radiant energy of sunlight
chloroplast chlorophyll-containing organelle that occur in the cytoplasm of cells of specific plant tissues
coenzyme organic compound that acts with an an enzyme to alter the rate of a reaction
cohesive the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together
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