HESI A&P (pg105-108)

Jasmine Tran
Flashcards by Jasmine Tran, updated more than 1 year ago
Jasmine Tran
Created by Jasmine Tran over 3 years ago


Tissues & Skin & Skeletal System

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Question Answer
The major body cavities? (2 main, 4 sub) Dorsal Cavity--(cranial & spinal) Ventral Cavity--(thoracic & abdominopelvic)
Histology study of tissues
What are the 4 fundamental tissues? Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous epi-layers, thicker at bottom connective-nerves everywhere muscle-long stringy nervous-one big stretchy eye
Epithelial Cells cover, line, and protect the body and its internal organs; it is AVASCULAR (lacks blood vessels)
SIMPLE squamous, cuboidal, columnar squamous- Allows passage of materials by diffusion & filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substance all-secretion & absorption
STRATIFIED squamous, cuboidal, columnar squamous-protects tissues in areas subjected to abrasion all protects
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED ciliated columnar (long wit hair at the top) secretion of mucus; pushing mucus forward by cilia
Connective Tissue framework of the body, providing support and structure for the organs
Nerve Tissue Composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are referred to as neuroglia
Muscle Tissue What are the two types of muscle tissues and name examples from both. Muscle tissues have the ability to contract or shorten. Voluntary muscle--(skeletal muscle) Involuntary muscle--(smooth & cardiac muscle)
Cell basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs
Nucleus contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Ribosomes important in the synthesis of proteins
Proteins include the enzymes that regulate all chemical reactions within the body
Mitosis necessary for growth and repair. DNA is duplicated and distributed into two daughter cells
Meiosis special cell division that takes place in the gonads (ovaries/testes). The chromosome number is reduced from 46 to 23 so when the egg & sperm unite in fertilization, the zygote will have the correct # of chromosomes
2 layers of skin sit on top of what? epidermis & dermis subcutaneous tissue that connects the skin to the superficial muscles
Layers of epidermis Which layer does mitosis occur? stratum corneum (outer) stratum germinativum (inner) is where mitosis occurs
Epidermal cells contain the protein pigment called? melanin, which protects against radiation from the sun
2 types of sweat glands Eccrine & Sebaceous
Eccrine glands widely distributed, regulate body temp by releasing water secretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin
Apocrine secretion in which parts of the cell are in secretion; contains bits of cytoplasm & the cell debris attracts bacteria=body odor; armpits & groin
Sebaceous glands release an oily secretion (sebum) through the hair follicles that lubricates the skin and prevents drying
Holocrine secretion produces sebum; in which whole cells of the gland are part of the secretion; pimples
What are the appendages of the skin? Hair & nails
What is the strong protein that makes up hair and nails? keratin
What make up the skeletal system? bone, cartilage, ligaments, and joints
The axial skeleton consists of __ bones of the skull. 28
Hemopoiesis blood cell formation
Where is interstitial fluid found in the body? in the tissues around cells
What is the normal pH in the body? 7.35-7.45 less would be acidosis, more would be alkalosis
Functions of the skeletal system? support, movement, hemopoiesis, protection of internal organs, detoxification (removal of poisons), provision for muscle attachment, and mineral storage (calcium & phosphorus)
Why are bones considered to be organs? They contain nervous & connective tissue
Bone classifications long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
Cancellous bone & Compact bone spongy bone @ the ends of long bones/epiphysis @the shaft/diaphysis
What are cells that form compact bones? Osteoblasts (responsible for bone formation) ((osteocytesbreakdown))
Foramina small openings in the body which allow cranial nerves, arteries, and veins to pass through solid structures
Where is the hyoid bone located? neck
List the sequence of the vertebral column (from superior to inferior) Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx
Synovial joints most moveable joint, have fluid-filled capsule, most common body joint
Fibrocartilaginous joint in the vertebral discs of spinal column, allow slight movement
Muscle contraction is result of what two fibers? Actin and Myosin filaments
Sarcomeres Small units that make up myofibrils which make up each muscle cell
What must be present for a muscle cell to contract? Calcium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
What is the longest muscle in the human body? Sartorius (in the front of the thigh, from hip to end of femur)
Synergists Muscles that work in cooperation with the prime mover muscle
Ligaments connect which two structures? Bone to bone
Tendons connect which two structures? Muscle to bone
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