Ben Smith
Flashcards by , created almost 6 years ago

Chemistry (EEE Definitions) Flashcards on EEE, created by Ben Smith on 04/30/2013.

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Ben Smith
Created by Ben Smith almost 6 years ago
Acids, Bases and Salts
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Question Answer
Oxidation Loss of electrons, increase in oxidation num
Reduction Gain of electrons, decrease in oxidation number
Standard electrode potential e.m.f of a half cell compared with a standard hydrogen half cell, measured at 298k with solution concentration 1moldm-3 and a gas pressure of 100kpa
Transition metal D-block element that forms one or more stable ions with an incomplete d-sub shell
Complex ion transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by co-ordinate bonds (dative covalent)
Ligand molecule or ion that can donate a pair of electrons to a transition metal ion to form a co-ordinate bond
co-ordination number total num of co-ordinate bonds formed between central metal ion and its ligands
Stereoisomers species with the same structural and molecular formula but a different arrangement in space cis/trans or optical
Ligand substitution reaction in which one ligand in a complex ion is replaced by another ligand
Stability constant Kstab equilibrium constant for the equilibrium existing between a transition metal ion surrounded by water ligands and the complex formed when the same ion has undergone ligand subsitution
Lattice enthalpy enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of an ionic compound from its gaseous ions under standard conditions
Hess' law states that if a reaction can take place by more than one rout and the initial and final conditions are the same for each, the total enthalpy change is the same for each route
Standard enthalpy change of formation H change that takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions
H change of atomisation H change that takes place when one mole of gaseous atoms forms from the element in its standard state
first ionisation energy h change accompanying the removal of one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
2nd ionisation energy H change accompanying the removal of one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions
First electron affinity H change accompanying the addition of one electron to each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1- ions
2nd electron affinity enthalpy change accompanying the addition of one electron to one mole of gaseous 1- ions to form one mole of gaseous 2- ions
Standard H change of solution H change that takes place when one mole of a compound is completely dissolved in water under standard conditions
Standard H change of hydration H change that takes place when one moles of isolated gaseous ions are dissolved in water forming one mole of aqueous ions under standard conditions
Free energy change, Delta G Balance between entropy, enthalpy and temperature for a process: ^G=^H-T^S Process can take place spontaneously when ^G < 0
ionic product of water Kw=? [H+(aq)][OH-(aq)]
Buffer solutions mixture that minimises changes to pH upon addition of acid or base
equivalence point is the point in a titration at which the volume of one solution has reacted exactly with the volume of the second solution
end point point in a titration at which there are equal concentrations of the weak acid and conjugate base forms of the indicator
Standard enthalpy change of neutralisation energy change that accompanies the neutralization of an aqueous acid by an aqueous base to form one mole of H2O under standard conditions
rate of reaction Change in concentration of reaction or product per unit time
Initial rate of reaction change in concentration of product or reactant per unit time at the start of the reaction where t=0
Rate eqution for A+B=C rate = k[A](m)[B](n) Where m is the order with respect to A and N is the order with respect to B
Order with respect to reactant is the power to which the concentration of the reactant is raised in the rate equation
overall order sum of individual orders
Rate constant, k is the constant that links the rate of reaction with concentrations of the reactants raised to the power of there orders in the rate equation
Half-life time taken for concentration of reactant to decrease by half
Reaction mechanism series of steps, that together, make up the overall reaction
rate-determining step slowest step in the reaction mechanism of a multi-step reaction
Intermediate species formed in one step of a multi-step reaction that is used up in a subsequent step, and is not seen as either a reactant or product of the overall equation
Equilibrium law for aA + bB = cC + dD [C](c)[D](d) Kc = _____________ [A](a)[B](b)
Dynamic equilibrium exists in a closed system where the rate of the forward reaction = the rate of the reverse reaction and the conc of reactants stays constant
Homogeneous equilibrium all species making up products and reactants are in the same physical state
Heterogeneous equilibrium where all species making up reactants and products are in different physical states
Bronsted-Lowry acid H+, proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry Base Proton, H+, acceptor
Bronsted-Lowry Base Proton, H+, acceptor
Alkali base that dissolves in water giving OH- ions
Neutralisation Chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react together to produce a salt and water
Acid-base pair pair of two species with transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton
pH = ? -log[H+]
[H+(aq)] =? 10(-pH)
Strong acid Completely dissociates in solution
Weak acid partially dissociates in solution
pKa =? -log10Ka
Ka = ? 10-pKa
Acid dissociation constant, Ka = ? Ka = [H+][A-] ---------- [HA(aq)]