Blueprint of Life - Focus Area 1 (summarised, does not cover everything)

Blessy V
Flashcards by Blessy V, updated more than 1 year ago
Blessy V
Created by Blessy V almost 4 years ago
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Higher School Certificate Biology Flashcards on Blueprint of Life - Focus Area 1 (summarised, does not cover everything), created by Blessy V on 10/17/2016.

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BIOLOGY: BLUEPRINT OF LIFE: FOCUS 1 > outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of changes: in physical conditions in the environment, in chemical conditions in the environment and competition for resources. :D
What is evolution? Evolution is the change in a population over time.
What is the mechanism for evolution? Natural selection
In a population, individuals are characterised by _______ _________. Inherited traits
What happens in a changing environment? The species experiences the change in an environment which can be physical or chemical; in such a situation, certain traits have an advantage: these survive, breed and pass on these inherited traits to their offspring and over time, this trait becomes common = population evolves.
List three reasons for evolution: - Change in the physical conditions of environment - Change in chemical conditions of environment - Competition for resources
Provide examples of physical changes in the environment. - Change in wind, slope, water availability, temperature, availability of light, tides, rainfall.
Provide examples of chemical changes in the environment. - presence or absence of gases in the environment = oxygen, CO2, pH, concentration of salt etc
Provide examples of competition for resources. - In plants: competition for light, water, soil nutrients. - In animals: compete for breeding territory, food, water, shelter, mates.
Describe the nature of adaptions in environmental changes and evolution. - Individuals do not develop adaptions in response to environmental change. - They already possess the inherited random variation = advantage under new conditions.
What is an adaption? Adaptation: enables organism to cope better with the selective pressure conferred by a changed environment and out compete those organisms that do not possess it.
Provide a case example of evolution caused in an animal by a physical change in the environment. - Plate tectonics: Australia has been moving north for 25 million years, therefore = hotter, drier, increased woodland + grassland. - Effect on kangaroo species: The ancient kangaroo was small with generalised molars. - Evolution of kangaroos: large with specialised high crested molars for eating grass. - Fewer but longer toes for hopping instead of galloping (faster escape from predators)
Provide an example of evolution occurring in an insect caused by a physical change in the environment. - Peppered Moth in England - Industrialised time in 19th century = pollution - pepper moth with dark colours = survive longer because they can camouflage in dark, sooty environment - Gene for darker colour passed on = common - Lighter coloured months: eaten by birds. - However, once population decreased, light coloured moths predominated.
Provide a case example of a plant evolving due to a physical change in the environment. -Bushfires in Australia due to lightning strikes - Only plants adapted to fire can survive, i.e. eucalyptus.
Provide examples of chemical change cases in plants causing evolution: - Soil ph change = significant effect on plant life. - Mining = evolution of plant types which are tolerant to heavy mineral wastes. - Increase in soil salinity = more soil tolerant plants. - Erosion and leeching caused by change in composition of soil due to high temperatures in Australia = eucalyptus survives.
Provide an example of a case in which chemical change caused evolution in an insect. - Insecticide DDT killed mosquitos. - However, some survived as they had a DDT resistant gene --> passed onto offspring = common - Now, DDT has to be used in high concentrations to kill mosquitos.
Describe how chemical changes can cause resistant organisms in antibiotics. - Herbicides, insecticides and antibiotics lead to the evolution of resistant organisms. = staphylococcus bacteria = resistant to penicillin.
Competition for resources can occur between ______ or _______ species. Competition for resources can occur between SAME or DIFFERENT species.
Provide an example of competition for resources causing evolution. - In Australia, introduction of non-native species such as fox, rabbit, feral cats, cane toads lead to the extinction of native species such as the burrowing bettong.
Describe how giraffes evolved due to competition for resources. - Ancestral giraffes had to compete for higher leaves on trees as the environment changes - Longer neck = advantageous - Passed on 'long neck' gene = lead to the long necked species of giraffes.
Describe the case study: Evolution of kangaroos - Small kangaroos (size of rabbits) in Central Australia, 25 million years ago. - Environment then: cool, moderate rainfall, freshwater lakes, rivers, heavily forested. - Middle of the Miocene (10-12million years ago), Australia moved north = heated up = drier. - Forests = eucalyptus + grassland. - Kangaroos increased = evolved into larger kangaroos. - Fewer but longer toes for hopping instead of galloping to escape predators. - Specialised high crested Molars adapted to grazing.
What are the different types of evidence for evolution. - Palaeontology - Comparative anatomy - Comparative embryology - Biochemical similarities - Biogeography
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