Forensic Medicine

Flashcards by Leeney938, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Leeney938 about 7 years ago


Causes of Death

Resource summary

Question Answer
List the 5 types of skull fractures Linear Fracture Spiders Web Fracture Pond Fracture Depressed Fracture Ring Fracture
Epidural Haemorrhage Least common Blood from meningeal artery Formation between dura and skull Higher mortality with older people
Subdural Haemorrhage More common than epidural Vein, from cortex to dural sinuses, causative blood supply for bleed More common in shaken babies
Subarachnoid Haemorrhage More common than subdural Associated with head/ neck injuries Blood can mingle with cerebrospinal fluid, aiding motility in blood supply decreasing clotting ability Death can be rapid due to large volume of blood in brainstem
Haemothorax Bleed into the pleural cavity Penetrating wound to the lung Death maybe due to reduce in circulating blood supply Little or no external blood loss
Pneumothorax 2 Types: Open Closed Open allows air to pleural cavity though open wound Closed air passes into pleural cavity through wound in lung and visceral pleura Equates in a collapsed lung If more air enters via wound this can cause circulatory problems and result in a shift of the heart to the direction of the collapsed lung Tension pneumothorax valve-like action air enters into the pleural but cannot escape on expiration Complete collapse of the lung, due to pressure changes Worst case respiratory failure
Asphyxia Mechanical Impedes access of air to lungs, reduces blood supply to head and neck, causing sudden cardiac arrest, stimulation of carotid sinus Signs Petechial haemorrhages Congestion of the face cyanosis of the skin
Strangulation Manual Classic signs Scratch marks on the neck - escape Most death is cardiac arrest Can have damage to larynx and hyoid bone
Strangulation Ligature Gross classical signs if pressure maintained 15 sec onwards Ligature mark all the way around Edges of mark defined Scratch marks - escape Less internal damage to larynx and hyoid bone
Hanging Free swinging (Gap), no classical signs of asphyxia, mark does not run full neck Post mortem hypostasis visible (livor mortis/settling of the blood), pale face Leads to cardiac arrest and carotid occlusion is more often
Burns Can withstand between 20-44 degrees C Dependent upon: applied temp. Duration of application Ability of body surface to conduct excess heat away Dry heat: Skin- split/peeling, bright cherry colour, pugilistic effects and larynx/ trachea may contain soot First degree: erythema and swelling Second degree: damage to dermis and blister formation Third degree: full thickness burn, destruction to subdermal tissue sometimes to muscle and bone Scalds: resembles first degree dry burn Red/peeling Rule of Nine: Head, R arm, L arm - 9% F torso, B torso, F legs, B legs - 18% Genitalia- 1%
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