Loire Valley

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Module 2: Wines of France Flashcards on Loire Valley, created by Ian Haggie on 11/15/2016.
Ian Haggie
Flashcards by Ian Haggie, updated more than 1 year ago
Ian Haggie
Created by Ian Haggie almost 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
Loire Valley Pays-Nantes Anjou Saumur Touraine Central Vineyards
Loire - Location Longest river in EU - 1000km 250km SW of Paris Last wild river in EU World Heritage site
Loire - History Ancient border between North & South Chinon where the Dauphin met Joan of Arc Many of Frances finest Chateaux
Loire - Culture The "Garden of France" Famous cities: Orleans, Tours, Bourges, Angers & Nantes
Loire - Climate Generally cool & temperate More maritime climate in Pays Nantais Central Vineyards more continental 750ml annual rainfall
Loire - Topography 0-350m above sea level Long river valley
Soils Varied
Loire - famous wines Sancerre, Vouvray, Chinon, Muscadet sur lie Second most important sparkling wine after Champange All styles
Loire - Major Grape Varieties Melon de Borgougne (Muscadet) Chenin Blanc (Vouvray, Savinnieres, sparkling wines) Sauv Blanc (Sancerre, Pouilly Fume) Cab Franc (Chinon, Bourgueil, Saumur-Champigny, Anjou) Petit noir (Sancerre Rouge)
Loire - Minor Grape Varieties Grolleau (Rose d'Anjou) Gamay noir (Anjou Gamay)
Loire - Why the Loire? Fresh white wines Elegant red wines Good sparkling wines Excellent sweet wines Variety, freshness, finesse Affordable & accessible Wine for every occasions Wines for all seasons Food friendly wines Wines from the heart of France
Loire - NB generic appelations Cremant de Loire - Chenin, CF, Chard, Pinot Rose de Loire - CF, Grolleau
Pays Nantais - Location Western Atlantic Coast Mostly Loire-Atlantique departement
Pays Nantais - Climate Maritime Mild and damp
Pays Nantais - Topography Mostly gentle hills, flatter areas at coast
Pays Nantais - Soils Light and stony above granitic subsoil More schistous in Coteaux de la Loire
Pays Nantais - Grapes Melon de Borgougne Chenin
Pays Nantais - Appelations 1. Muscadet - M. de B. 2. Muscadet Sevre et Maine - M de B. 3. Muscadet Coteaux de le Loire - M. de B. 4. Muscadet Côtes de Grandlieu - M. de B. 5. Conteaux d'Ancenis -Chenin (sweet)
Pays Nantais - Description Muscadet Sèvre-et-Maine AOP best know (especially sur lie) Area called after the grape rather than area of origin Brought there from Burgundy - flourishes in Maritime conditions Wine approved by board before using appellation
Pays Nantais - Description cont. Sur lees over winter - came from tradition of leaving barrels for special occasions Only best vineyards get sur lie No racking or fining,
Pays Nantais - Wine Style Very dry, slightly salty and firm rather than acidic. In hot years can lack acidity. Bottled sur lie = extra delicacy, slight sparkle, fuller body, slightly yeasty character Acid --> mostly Malic acid, no sweetness or dry extract Best: light, leafy and slightly nutty
Anjou-Saumur - AOP's 1. Savinnières - Chenin (dry) 2. Coteaux de Layon - Chenin (sweet) 3. Saumur-Champigny - Cab Franc, Cab Sauv, Pineau d'Aunis 4. Saumur -Cab franc, Cab Sauv, Pineau d'Aunis
Anjou-Saumur - Location West Central area Vineyards mostly on left bank between Saumur and Angers Mostly Maine-et-Loire département
Anjou-Saumur - Climate Gentle Atlantic influenced Warm summers, mild autumn
Anjou-Saumur - Topography Mostly rolling hills Best sites are south facing rocky hillsides of Savinnières
Anjou-Saumur - Soil Schistous, dark, shallow topsoil in Anjou Chalky tuffeau in Saumur
Anjou-Saumur - Grape varieties Chenin, Cab franc Also Grolleau, Gamay noir, Chardonnay
Anjou - description Vineyards south of Angers Wines of all colours - well known for Rosé More red than white - Cab Franc, Cab Sauv, Cot (Malbec), Gamay, Grolleau Whites - Chenin, Sauv Blanc, Chardonnay Sweet wines - Coteaux du Layon, Quartz de Chaume, Bonnezeaux 2011 - Q de Chaume = Grand Cru (botrytis)
Anjou - Savinniéres Nicholas Joly Stony vineyards lie on slopes of slate and sandstone Worked by hand - too steep High quality Chenin - ripe, fiercely acidic grapes Legal limit 20hl/hl = concentration & acidity Wine need ageing Dry Savinnières ultimate chenin
Saumer Left bank of the Loire between Angers & Tours Famous castle built from tuffeau limestone Old excavation sites = cellars Saumer Mousseux sparkling wines - Chenin or red/white blend (cremant)
Saumer Chenin Cab Franc sometimes blended with Cab Sauv Remember: Saumer-Champigny = Cab Franc
Touraine AOP's Vouvray - Chenin Bourgeuil & St-Nicolas-de-Bourgeuil - CF & CS Chinon - Chenin, CF, CS
Touraine - Location East Central region around Tours. Mostly in Indre-et-Loire département
Touraine - Climate Less maritime but still some atlantic influences Warm summer, low rainfall
Touraine - Topography Small rolling hills, flatter around Tours Best sites south facing
Touraine - Soil Vouvray - Clay & limestone over tufa Chinon & Bourgueil: sandy gravel soils in lower areas. Sandy clay on slopes produces firmer wines.
Touraine - Grape Varieties Cab Franc, Chenin blanc Also Cab Sauv, Grolleau, Malbec (Cot), Romorantin
Touraine - Description The Garden of France -verdant, fertile Aristocrats of the Ancienne Régime Red, white, Rosé, sparkling
Touraine - Vouvray Largest white wine appelation Dry & austere to richest dessert wine and sparkling wines Chenin Blanc 60/40 Still v sparkling
Touraine - Vouvray cont. Siliceous-Clay & Limestone topsoil on top of Tuffeau Cool climate = good acidity = good balance of fruity chenin vs minerality Botrytis a factor Great ageability - develops richness, keeps freshness and fruit Domaine Huet - biodynamic
Touraine - Chinon River Vienne Red wine - Cab Franc (locally Breton) Raspberry/blackcurrant + pencil
Touraine - Chinon Soils Sand & Gravel (river flood plains) = light, elegant wines for early drinking Tuffeau limestone soil of the hills = full bodied wines, ageing (old vines, old oak - fruit)
Touraine - Chinon Wine Styles Lighter bodied nice chilled Older, full-bodied similar to fine red (silky Margaux) Very Tannic and closed when young, requires age (decades! = earthy aromas)
Central Vineyards AOP Quincy Reuilly Pouilly-Fumé Sancerre
Central Vineyards AOP cont. Quincy - Sauv Blanc Reuilly - Sauv Blanc, Pinot noir Pouilly-Fumé - Sauv Blanc Sancerre - Sauv Blanc, Pinot noir
Central Vineyards Location Most easterly Central France, SE of Orleans Mainly in Cher, Nievre and Indre Departments
Central Vineyards Climate Semi-Continental Short, warm summers with long, cold winters Danger of spring frosts and hail
Central Vineyards Topography Chalk hills Steeper slopes at 200m in Sancerre
Central Vineyards Soil Clay & Limestone Kimmeridgian clay in Sancerre
Central Vineyards Grape Varieties Sauv Blanc Pinot Noir
Central Vineyards Description Sauv Blanc & Pinot noir Old & new techniques = full expression of each terroir
Central Vineyards Sancerre & Pouilly-Fumé Sauvignon Blanc Left = Sancerre Right = Pouilly-Fumé Limestone hills continental climate
Central Vineyards Sancerre & Pouilly-Fumé Increased yields = crisp, fruity wines Sancerre = fuller, obvious Pouilly-Fumé = perfumed Flint (Silex) = age worthy, acrid wines (gunflint or pierre á fusil)
Central Vineyards Sancerre White - lively, fruity Aroma: citrus fruit, esp. grapefruit Minerality from mineral-rich soil Red - Morello cherries (pinot noir) Light and supple, long finish
Central Vineyards Pouilly-Fumé de Ladoucette's Chateau du Nozet Didier Dagueneau - low yields and experiments with oak Outspoken against high yields (and neighbours!)
Great Loire Vintages 2000 2003 2005 2009 2010 2012 2014 (whites only, Muscadet in particular) 2009, 2015 - sweet whites
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