Theoretical criminology - control theories

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Flashcards by vicky_hunt, updated more than 1 year ago
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Criminology Flashcards on Theoretical criminology - control theories , created by vicky_hunt on 04/02/2014.

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1951, Albert J. Reiss predict probation revocation among juvenile offenders
Reiss reviewed, 1,110 white male juvenile probationers between age of 11 and 17 psychiatrically diagnosed as having weak ego or superego controls
personal controls, ability to refrain from meeting needs in ways that conflicted with the norms and rules of the community he found probation revocation, did not regularly attend school, described as behaviour problems by school authorities
Reiss argued that the failure of personal controls explained both phenomena accepting at face value the theoretical framework of the psychiatrists
Nye - found youths in the 'most delinquent' group were more likely to... be given either complete freedom or no freedom at all, to have large sums of money available, to be rejecting of their parents and to disprove of their parents appearance
control theories present strong challenge to the more common view that juvenile delinquency is caused by special biological, psychological, or social factors
In delinquency and Drift - Matza emphasize constraint and differentiation
delinquents are said to be different from non-delinquents in some fundamental way and that difference constrains them to commit their delinquencies
Matza proposed an alternate image for delinquents that emphasizes freedom and similarity rather than constraint and differentiation
the DRIFT said to occur social structure in which control has been loosened, freeing the delinquent to respond in whatever conventional or criminal forces happen to come along
positive causes of delinquency may be accidental or unpredictable from the point of view of any theoretical frame of reference and deflection from the delinquent path may be similarly accidental or unpredictable
Matza did not deny there were committed and compulsive deviants but argued, vast majority of delinquents were 'drifters' who were neither
they describe their behaviour morally wrong but argue there are... extenuating circumstances, so that their own delinquent actions are 'guiltless'
delinquents do not reject conventional moral values, but neutralize them in a wide variety of circumstances so that they are able to commit delinquent actions and still consider themselves guiltless
sense of responsibility reinforced by the ideology of the juvenile court, declares that juveniles are not responsible for their actions
Matza suggests, some positive causes of delinquency in the sense that there are reasons why the juvenile chooses delinquent, as opposed to lawful behaviours
Hirshci - 1969 - Causes of delinquency we are all animals and thus all naturally capable of committing criminal acts
attachment - i.e., affection for and sensitivity to others internalization of values and norms
commitment rational investment one has in conventional society, risk one takes when engaging in deviant behaviour
involvement in conventional activities, being busy restricts opportunities for delinquent activities
belief conventional moral beliefs, but neutralized them with excuses so they could commit delinquent acts without feeling guilty
most of these studies - find support for two out of the four variables attachment and commitment
control theories have more or less dominated criminology since Hirschi published his social control theory in 1969
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