Respiratory Physiology

Alison Salvaggio
Flashcards by , created about 3 years ago

Veterinary Technology Flashcards on Respiratory Physiology, created by Alison Salvaggio on 11/22/2016.

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Alison Salvaggio
Created by Alison Salvaggio about 3 years ago
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Question Answer
Upper Respiratory System structures Nose, Pharynx, associated structures
Lower Resp System Structures Larynx, trachea, Bronchi, Lungs
Conducting portion of Resp System Part not involved with gas exchange. Warms, filters, moistens, and conducts air to and from the lungs. (Every structure down to the terminal bronchioles)
4 Structures involved in gas exchange Resp bronchioles Alveolar ducts alveolar sacs alveoli
Epiglottis Covers glottis during swallowing to protect larynx and trachea
What is the primary passageway for air into the lungs Trachea
Annular Ligaments Unites cartilage rings, makes trachea flexible tube.
4 Lobes of Right Lung Apical Lobe Cardiac Lobe Accessory Lobe Diaphragmatic Lobe
Pulmonary and Bronchial Arteries supply blood to the... Lungs
hypoxia Low Oxygen
Perfusion Coupling Allows pulm blood to be sent to areas with good ventilation.
Bronchial arteries... Arise from the aorta and deliver oxygen to the lungs
The pressure within the lungs? Intrapulmonic
Pressure within the pleural cavity? Interpleural pressure
Boyles Law Inverse relationship btw Volume and Pressure
What causes most of the exhalation? Recoil tendency of Lung (expiration is a passive process except in Horses)
When is expiration an active process? When accelerated breathing takes place, or something is impeding air flow.
Main Expiratory Muscles Abdominal Muscles and Internal Intercostal Muscles
Intrapulmonic pressure becomes positive when... Expiration occurs
The intrapulmonic pressure is normally _____ during inspiration.. negative
The intrapleural pressure is during inspiration vs expiration is... Negative, inc. but stays negative
2 things that produce RECOIL Elastic fibers in lung, surface tension of fluid that lines alveolar
What prevents the collapse and the recoil of the lungs during expiration? Air tries to flow from the alveoli into the pleural space because ti wants to get to an area of lower pressure (moving down it's pressure gradient from high to low), it cannot flow into the pleural space and that force that occurs against the walls of the alveoli counteracts the lung recoil.
Surfactant Factor opposing recoil, keeps alveolar from contracting and collapsing. Contributes to compliancy (how easily lung is filled). Interferes with cohesion of water.
Factors Opposing Recoil Tendency of Lungs Surfactant Force exerted against walls of capillaries counteracts recoil
Premature birth= inadequate surfactant production
Pneumothroax entry of air into pleural cavity that can cause collapse of lungs
5 Types of Pneumothorax Close pneumothorax Open pneumothorax latrogenic pneumothorax spontaneous pneumothorax tension pneumothorax
Open pneumothorax opening btw pleural space and exterior air, intrapleural pressure will = atmospheric pressure and that neg P preventing recoil goes away.
Mediastinal flutter structures in mediastinum shift toward uninjured side during inspiration with an open pneumothorax, and inch back during expiration.
Throcaocentesis procedure to remove excess fluid in pleural cavity.
Atelectasis consequence of pneumothorax, surfactant loss conditions, incomplete expansion of lung at birth (congenital) or collapse of previously air-filled lung (acquired)
Causes of Atelectasis Blockage of one of the bronchi or bronchioles that lead to lung tissue
2 Main Types of Atelectasis Obstructive Atelectasis Compression Atelectasis
Obstructive Atelectasis AKA Absorption Atelectasis or Secondary complete airway blockage
Compression Atelectasis Blockage by something pressing from the outside
Massive Atelectasis Occurs when lung collapses due to loss of neg. pressure from pneumothorax
Hypostatic Atelectasis Caused by prolonged recumbency of animal
Obstructive Pulmonary diseases... Increase airway resistance, often narrowed airways
Examples of Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Asthma, chronic bronchitis Emphysema
Bronchoconstrictor Agonists Constrict Bronchi
Emphysema alveoli become enlarged narrowed airways inc resistance dec amount of oxygen gettign into alveoli
2 Types of Breathing Costal Abdominal
Eupnea Normal or quiet breathing with no deviation in frequency or depth
Bradypnea abnormally slow breathing
Tachypnea excessive rapidity of breathing
Tidal Volume (Vt) The volume of fresh air inspired during one, normal, quiet inspiration
Respiratory Frequency (f) The number of resp cycles per minute aka resp rate
Minute Volume (V) The volume of fresh air entering the lungs per minute
Minute Volume (V) = Tidal Volume (Vt) x Resp Frequency (f)
When air comes into the resp track, what two functionally diff parts does it go to? The conducting airways (aka the anatomical dead space) and the gas exchange portion
Anatomical Dead Space All the air in conducting airways that does not directly participate in gas exchange
alveolar Vd alveoli dead space
To calculate total physiological dead space use this formula: physiological Vd = anatomical Vd + alveolar Vd
Physiological Dead Space The volume of gas that is inspired but takes no place in gas exchange in the airways or alveoli
Tidal Volume is the sum of... volume alveolar (Va) + volume dead space (Vd)
6 Layers Gas needs to go across from alveoli to blood during gas exchange Alveolar Fluid Alveolar Epithelium Alveolar Basement Membrane Interstitial Fluid Capillary Basement Membrane Capillary Endothelium
How does Pulmonary Edema influence gas diffusion? It is a fluid accumulation in the alveoli and inc the membrane thickness, which slows the rate of diffusion
How does Pneumonia affect gas diffusion? inc thickness of resp membrane, mucus build up, makes diffusion less efficient
Diffusion Coefficient Measure of how easily a gas will diffuse through a liquid or tissue
How much faster does carbon dioxide diffuse through the membrane? 20 times faster then oxygen
What diseases can cause decreased surface area of the respiratory membrane? emphysema lung cancer
total pressure gas = sum of all partial pressures
PO2 partial pressure of oxygen in a gas mixture
PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen dissolved in arterial blood plasma
PvO2 partial pressure of O2 dissolved in venous blood plasma
PAO2 partial pressure of O2 in alveoli
Hemoglobin can carry up to... 4 Oxygen molecules