Flashcards by amyjowi97, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by amyjowi97 about 7 years ago


Definitions of biology terms

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Question Answer
Active Transport the movement of substances against a concentration gradient and/or across a cell membrane, using energy from respiration
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) the hormone which controls the selective reabsorption of water in the kidney
aerobic respiration the process by which food molecules are broken down using oxygen to release energy for the cells
allele a version of a particular gene
anaerobic respiration cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen
asexual reproduction reproduction which involves only one parent and produces offspring which are identical to their parents
Auxins plant hormones which are involved in controlling the phototropisms
Carbohydrates food group which includes the sugars and starches. important in providing energy
Cell the basic unit of all living organisms
Cellular Respiration Respiration which takes place in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the cell
Cellulose Cell Wall The rigid cell wall which surrounds plant cells
Chlorophyll the green pigment contained in the chloroplast which captures light energy from the sun
Chloroplasts the plant organelles which contain chlorophyll. the site of photosynthesis
clone offspring produced by asexual reproduction which are identical to their parent
codominance two alleles which are both expressed in the phenotype of an organism
consumers organisms that feed on other organisms
cytoplasm the water-based gel in which the organelles of all living cells are suspended
decomposers microorganisms that break down waste products and dead bodies
diastole the stage of the cardiac cycle when the heart fills with blood
denatures the breakdown of the structure of a protein molecule if the temperature gets too hot or if the pH changes
differentiate the process by which unspecialised cells become specialised for a particular function
diffusion the net movement of particles of a gas or a solute form from an area of high to an area of low concentration down a concentration gradient
diploid having two sets of chromosomes in the nucleus: one from the male parent and the other form the female parent
disperse the spreading of seeds away from the parent plant
dominant a characteristic which will show up in the offspring even if only one of the alleles is inherited
double circulation the separate circulation of the blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart then around the body
ecosystem all of the animals and organisms living in an area and the things that affect them
egestion the removal of undigested food from a cell or from the body in the from of faeces
endocrine glands the glands which produce hormones and secrete them directly into the blood
enzyme a protein molecule which acts as a biological catalyst, speeding up the rates of reaction without being being used up or affected
eutrophication when a lake or river become enriched with nutrients. the microorganisms use up the O2 from the water so that the other organisms can no longer survive
fermentation another form of anaerobic respiration which is particularly used for microorganisms such as yeast. glucose is partly broken into ethanol or lactic acid with the release of a small amount of energy
fertilisation the joining of the haploid male and the haploid female gametes to forma new diploid individual
gametes the haploid sex cells which contain only one set of chromosomes.
genetically modified (GM) organism organisms that have DNA from a different species of a different individual inserted into their genome
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism concerning the alleles of a particular gene
global warming an increase in the temperature at the surface of the earth due to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trapping infrared radiation from the surface
glycogen the carbohydrate energy store found in the liver and muscles of animals. it can be converted back into glucose when energy is needed in the cells
greenhouse gases gases such as CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere which absorb infrared radiation from the earth's surface and radiate it back tot he surface
habitat the place where an animal or plant lives, including both the living and non-living aspects of the area
haploid having only one set of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell
heterozygous when two alleles for a particular gene on a pair of chromosomes are different
homozygous when two alleles for a particular gene on a pair of chromosomes are the same
hormones chemical messages which are secreted by endocrine glands and carried around the body in the blood to the organs they affect
hypothalamus the part of the brain which regulates many body functions, like temperature, hunger, thirst and sleeping. it also controls the production of many hormones from the pituitary gland
invertebrates animals which do not have a back bone
meiosis a two stage process of cell division which reduces the number of chromosomes from the diploid parent cell to the haploid daughter cell. important in the formation of gametes
mitochondria a cell organelle which is the site of aerobic respiration, so they produce most of the energy needed by the cell
mitosis Asexual cell division, a single stage process which results in identical daughter cells
natural selection the process by which evolution happens. organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support. only those who are best adapted to their environment will survive and pass on their characteristics
neurone the basic unit of the nervous system, they are cells which carry minute electrical impulses around the body
nitrogen cycle the continuous natural process by which nitrogen is exchanged between living organisms and the environment
nucleus the organelle in the cell which contains the genetic material
organ a group of different tissues working together to carry out a particular function in the body
organ system a group of organs working together to carry out a particular function in the body
organelles membrane-bound structures found in the cytoplasm of a cell which carry out particular functions in the cell
osmoregulation the control and regulation of the levels of mineral ions in the cytoplasm of a cell or the blood of an organism
osmosis the net movement of water down a concentration gradient from an area of high to low concentration of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane
phenotype the physical characteristics of an organism with respect to one or more particular genes
photosynthesis the process by which plants make food combining carbon dioxide and water to make glucose using light energy captured by chlorophyll
phototropism the response of a plant through growth to light shining from one side only
plasmids the extra circles of DNA containing extra genes found in bacteria and used by scientists in genetic engineering
population a group of individuals of the same species living in the same habitat and breeding together
positive tropism a tropism (movement by growth) in which the plant moves towards a stimulus
quadrat a piece of equipment used to sample an area to investigate population size of plants or slow moving animals
recessive a characteristic which shows up in the offspring when only both of the alleles are inherited
recombinant DNA DNA which has had a section of DNA from another organism or species inserted into it
sex chromosomes the chromosomes which determine the sex of the offspring. in humans it is XX for female and XY for male
sexual reproduction reproduction which involves the joining of two special haploid sex cells or gametes to produce a diploid offspring which is genetically different from their parents
synapse the gap between two neurones where the transmission of impulse is chemical rather than electrical. the transmission across the synapse depends on neurotransmitters
systole the stage in the cardiac cycle when the heart contracts and forces the blood around the body and to the lungs
transgenic an organism which contains DNA from another organism
transpiration the loss of water vapour from the surface of the leaves of plants. this occurs through the stomata when they are opened to allow the gaseous exchange needed for photosynthesis to take place
turgor the state of a plant cell when water has moved in by osmosis so that the cytoplasm is pressing hard against the cellulose cell wall and no more water can enter the cell
umbilical cord the structure that connects a foetus to the placenta. food and oxygen travel from the mother to the developing foetus through the umbilical cord, and waste products like carbon dioxide and urea pass out in the other direction
vaccination giving a dose of a weakened or dead pathogen ( a vaccine) to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and develop immunity to a disease
xylem the transport tissue in plants which carries water and mineral ions up from the root through the stems to the leaves
zygote the new diploid individual formed when the haploid male and female gametes meet and fuse in sexual reproduction
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