Social 30-1 (Alberta)

Courtney Schroter
Flashcards by Courtney Schroter, updated more than 1 year ago
Courtney Schroter
Created by Courtney Schroter over 3 years ago
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Study Notes for 30-1 Social Studies Diplomas
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Individualism A current of thinking that values the freedom and worth of the individual sometimes over the security and freedom of the group (Individual before group)
Collectivism A current of thinking that values the goals of the common good over the goals of any individual (Group before individual)
Thomas Hobbes Humans are typically bad If everyone was free everyone would be in danger Security is more important than freedom It's impossible to have both security and freedom
John Locke Humans are intelligent and reasonable People should be in power Believed in Democracy, rather than the highly influential divine right
Jean Jacques Rousseau Humans are relatively good, yet they're corrupt Representative democracy is bad, yet people should be in authority Citizens should make the laws directly
Charles De Secondat, baron de Montesquiew Believed in the worth of the individual, equality, accountability of the government Believed in the separation of powers in government (i.e. Executive, Judicial, Legislative)
John Stewart Mill Protection of the individual freedom and promotion of individual freedom decision-making Laws that prevent taking away others rights should be the only ones in place
Adam Smith Wrote the Wealth of Nations Capitalist
Robert Owen A well-known utopianism believer. Educated workers Improved working conditions Peacefully eradicated the negative aspects of capitalism Cotton-Spinning Business owner
Karl Marx Not actually a Marxist The only way to overthrow capitalism was a class struggle, a workers revolution between the Proletariat (Workers) and the Bourgeoisie (Owners)
Edmund Burke Society should be a hierarchy with those best suited to lead at the top because not everyone had equal abilities Government should be chosen by a select few with special rights and responsibilities Leaders should be humanitarian
President Theodore Roosevelt Wanted capital and labor (profits and workers rights) to be treated fairly Created the Square Deal Founded the political party "The National Progressive Party"
John Maynard Keynes Created Demand Side Economics
Vladimir Lenin Leader of the soviet union and the Russian Revolution. Pushed Communism too quickly, had to give back many rights and slowly return back to complete communism Believed Violent revolution was the only way to overthrow a government
Joseph Stalin Continued with Communism after Lenin died (and the 4-year power struggle that resulted in his death) Holodomor Persecuted Kulaks (Rich land-owning peasants) Killed his highest ranking officials for fear they would betray him, as well as anyone opposing him.
Adolf Hitler Leader of the Nazi Party After the treaty of Versailles, he began taking over countries and building the military to keep his people from poverty. Promoted absolute nationalism Made almost a dictatorship and prevented opponents from even creating a political party, executing others. Figurehead of World War II
William Taft The successor to Theodore Roosevelt Continued the initiatives to break up trusts (large monopoly like corporations)
President Franklin Roosevelt The cousin of Theodore Roosevelt Wanted to lessen the effects of the Great Depression Created the New Deal
Fredrich Hayek Critical of the collectivist theory Argued that communism is impossible to plan for the group collective, supply can be controlled but not demand
Milton Friedman Believed in small government Critical on the impact of controls on the economy by the government Wants to reduce government intervention
President Harry S Truman and the Truman Doctrine Called upon the US to "Support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures" Wanted to stop Soviet expansionism and contain the communist influence rather than fight a direct war. Used ideological conflict creating allies and giving aid.
Fidel Castro Leader of Cuba Had socialist ideas, and a strong relationship with the USSR, making the US wary.
Liberalism A collection of ideologies all committed to the principle of the dignity and freedom of the individual as the foundation for society. Has faith in human progress and tends to favor decentralized power, both in political and economic affairs and respect for the sovereignty of the reasoning individual
Totalitatian Government system that seeks complete control over the private and public lives of its citizens
Hegemony Political control exerted by one group over another
Pluralism A policy that actively promotes the acceptance of diversity in society
Progressivism Various ideologies that advocate moderate political and social reform through government action. Progressive ideologies generally support social justice and the rights of workers
Are Aboriginals Individualistic, or Collectivist. Why? Collectivist. Believed the creator allowed them to live on the land to share it. Decision making, education. and raising children were done collectively
Rule of Law Every individual is equal before the law, and all citizens are subject to the law
Three Types of Property Law 1. Real Estate - Land, Water, Air conditioners etc. 2. Physical Possesions - Stereos, Cars, etc. 3. Intellectual Property - Writing, Artwork, Music
Economic Freedom The freedom to buy or sell whatever you want to whomever you want. Free of government intervention, therefore Free Market
Invisible Hand Adam Smith coined the term. Guide individuals to do good for the common good
Economic Equality People with larger income pay higher taxes. Equal pay for similar work Guaranteed annual income Share the Wealth of the Country/World Everything should be free (No Private Property)
Co-Operation Co-operation is the means through which members of a group or a collective achieve the common goals
Public Property Anything not owned by individuals Maintained with public money/taxes and can be used by all members
Collective Interest The set of interests that members of a group have in common
Labour Unions Fight for better pay and working conditions within an occupation. (Teachers, Post Workers, etc.)
Collective Responsibility Holding the whole group responsible for the actions of the individuals. (i.e In North Korea, if a member of a family opposes the state in some way an entire family can be punished to send the message that that behaviour is not tolerated
Adherence to Collective norms Groups typically impose norms or standards on their members as a condition of membership in the group. (i.e Frats, Political parties, faith groups, trade unions etc)
Censorship Deliberately restricting information shared, another example of a collective norm.
Entreprenaurialism People pursue success individually but successful businesses do things beneficial to the collective like provide jobs or do positive things
Social Programs Provide for all (Universal Healthcare, Welfare, etc)
NGO's (Non-Government Organizations) Created with specific goals in mind to benefit the community but are also privately created and funded
Subsides A sum of money granted by the government of a public body to assist an industry/business so service price remains the same
Capital Gains A profit from the sale of property or for an investment (Tax)
Royalties Sum of money paid to a patron for the use of a patient product
Monetary Money or currency
Privitization Transferring an industry from the public sector to the private sector
Anarchist Someone who believes in anarchy (That is, complete political freedom and no government)
The Economic Spectrum
Communism State ownership of wealth, property and the means of production with each person working for the common good according to ability and receiving in return according to need
Socialism Does not believe in armed struggle by the workers but promotes peaceful change through peoples participation in government
Mixed Economy Uses free market mechanisms, however, certain sectors may have significant government regulations
Welfare Capitalism Production being controlled and owned by individuals, however, there is some government regulation protecting businesses
Capitalism Means of production are controlled and owned by individuals for personal profit
Maximum Economic Control involves... Public Ownership Complete Government Regulation Collective Rights
Maximum Economic Freedom involves... Private Ownership No Government Regulations Individual Rights
Political Spectrum
Liberalism Stresses individual rights and freedom of choice. It includes an increased role for government to promote personal freedom and reduce inequities
Conservatism Favors retention of traditional values. When individuals and society wish to make reforms, these must be slow and gradual rather than violent and revolutionary
Facism Extreme nationalism, authoritarian leadership. use of violence, militarism, hostility to communism, subordination of individuals, a state-controlled private enterprise economy
Maximum Political Freedoms involve... Many Political Parties Opposition Allowed Liberty Individual Rights
Maximum Political Control involves... One-Party Government Opposition Suppressed Terror Restrictions of Individual Rights
Classical Liberalism Greater focus on individual freedom. Importance of human rationality The Original ideas of liberalism Values political freedom and a free market economy that has limited government intervention within the economy.
Humanist Based on reason and logic opposed to religion
Laissex-Faire Economics Means Leave (people) alone to do (as they wish) Refers to the reduction of government
Mercantilism Primary goal is to strengthen the power and wealth of the state. High government regulation is neccessary
The American Revolution (Fresh Tip, Listen to Hamilton. Very useful) Americans declared independence from the British Crown and establish a republican form of government where governing authority was invested in the hands of its citizens and not a ruling monarch
French Revolution After the American revolution, the French version of it
The Great Law of Peace/ Constitution of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Established the equal participation of people including women in the government. Guaranteed certain rights and freedoms, including freedom of speech and the rights of individuals
Luddites Workers being replaced by machines in the industrial revolution, destroyed the machinery in hopes to be hired back.
Chartists Working class movement that focused on political and social reform Looked to counter the inequality created by the Industrial Revolution and classical liberalism through the electoral process
Utopian Socialists Humanitarians who advocated an end to the appalling conditions of the average worker in the industrial capitalist countries at that time.
Marxism Radical form of socialism often called scientific socialism of communism
Classical Conservatism Refers to an ideology that supports a return to a previous state of affairs
Progressivism Securing equal suffrage to men and women alike Conservation of human resources (workers rights, prohibit child labor, etc) Implement a single national health service
Welfare State A state in which the economy is capitalist, but the government uses policies that directly or indirectly modify the market forces in order to ensure economic stability
Modern Liberalism Freedom comes from equality of opportunity
Keynesian Economics
Keynes Demand Side Economics
Universal Suffrage In simple terms, if you were not a straight, caucasian man, you did not have equal rights unless someone fought for your rights.
Feminism The belief that men and women are to be treated equally in every respect
Bloody Sunday Workers marched to the Czar to ask for equal rights such s freedom of speech, press, religion, etc. Asked for state-sponsored education, better working conditions, fair wages Hundreds were gunned down Led to the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution Reaction to the injustices of the authoritarian Czarist system and uncontrolled free market capitalism that exploited Proletariat Bolsheviks sought to destroy the class-based system
Germany and the Aftermath of World War I Germany became a republic with a modern, liberal democratic political structure (Weimar Republic) German citizens blamed the government for signing the treaty of Versailles Germans associated liberalism with countries that defeated them in WWI
Authoritarian in Germany Germany had a kind Reichspräsiden (President of Germany), which created a welfare state with health, accident, old age, and disability insurance Many saw authoritarianism as benevolent
Adolf Hitlers Nazi Party Promoted absolute nationalism Used paramilitary organizations to stifle dissent and terrorize the opposition Centralized decision making with a single leader
Nazi Theories od Radical Superiority Included a racial theory that claimed that Germans formed a superior "Aryan Race" Used Jews as a scapegoat and claimed they were the reason Germans were the cause of all of Germanys problems
Women and Youth in Nazi Germany Women stayed at home and raised children Couples were rewarded for having Children Children were active participants in Nazism and were encouraged to report anti-Nazi acts, even by their parents
Credit Unions Small financial institutions owned by their members. Profits offer members better lending rates and lower fees.
3 Central ideas to Political Conservatism Isolationism - Retreat from involvement in other country affairs Nativism - Immigration Reduction Government Involvement reduction
Economic Prosperity and Consumerism Happy Employees = Efficient Work Paying better wages would allow workers to buy products they produced and increase sales
The Great Depression Stock Market crash on Wall Street Oct. 29 1929 Financial panic hit the market and people started to rapidly sell stocks. There were too many stocks, not enough purchases, therefore they dropped dramatically in value Some people just hoarded money
The New Deal Franklin Roosevelt Provided relief and work to those in need US Government Would: Increase Spending Introduce Banking Controls Subsidies for Agriculture (Pay part of the cost) Social Reforms
In Canada During the Great Depression, Prime Minister Bennetts New Deal More Progressive Taxation Minimum Wage Regulation of working conditions Health and Accident insurance Old Age Pensions Support for Agriculture
Monetrism Central bank adjust money supply and interest rate to stabilize the amount of money to purchase goods and services and the ability for the economy to produce these goods and services
Thatcherism Deregulation of the economy Sale of government-owned enterprises Decentralization of government departments Reductions in government spending on social programs
Reganomics Supply Side economics Reduce government spending Cutting taxes Fewer government social programs Focus on production Trickle down economics
Potsdam Germany UK US and USSR leaders meet in Potsdam Germany to plan postwar Europe. They determined the future course of world history. Truman (US) and Stalin (USSR) sought to avoid each other but recognized each other as powerful people
Expansionism The attempt to enlarge territorial and ideological influence beyond a country and its borders
Containment The Attempt to thwart another countries expansionism without going to war
Marshal Plan The US Plan to help war-torn countries recover. It is unlikely the Americans would approve aid to Communist countries, yet they provided aid to the Capitalist countries
Molotov Plan The USSR response to the Marshal plan. Involved bilateral trade agreements that helped the economies of socialist countries and solidify the USSR presence in Europe
Berlin Split into East and West Germany, Eastern being run by the USSR and Communism, West being run by France, USA and UK as well as Capitalism.
Berlin Wall East Germans locked up the border between East and West Berlin to prevent people from crossing the border to capitalism. Later, due to Berlin being in the middle of East Germany, Berlin was later completely surrounded by walls preventing escape
Alignment In the interest of security, some countries aligned themselves with one of the superpowers
Non-Alignment Some countries refused alignment and created the Non-Aligned Movement in which they would all remain neutral
Deterence A method of cold war involving the building up of one's capacity to fight because of the expected outcomes.
The Red Scare The USA and their fear of both the USSR and Communism during the Cold War
Dissuasion
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