Jannette Bloom
Flashcards by Jannette Bloom, updated more than 1 year ago
Jannette Bloom
Created by Jannette Bloom over 3 years ago


A flash card activity which covers the role of macro and micro minerals.

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Question Answer
Calcium (Ca) (macro mineral ) Calcium interacts with phosphorous and should be fed at a ratio of 2:1 calcium to phosphorous. Calcium is absorbed in the small intestine. Calcium is important for bone formation, muscle contraction, contraction and expansion of blood vessels, nerve impulse transmission and hormone production. Calcium is an important substance contained in cell membranes it allows certain substances through the cell wall whilst restricting others. If magnesium or phosphorous is high in the diet calcium absorption is restricted. Alfalfa and clover are high in calcium. Cereal grains such as maize and especially oats are low in calcium. Calcium is primarily stored in bones so if there is a shortage it is taken out of the bones. Calcium deficiency can cause weakened bones. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium.
Phosphorous (P) (macro mineral ) Phosphorous (P) has a close relationship with calcium (Ca) and should be fed in the diet 2:1 Ca to P Phosphorous is found in the bones (14% of bone is P). Phosphorous has an imporant role in the production of adenosine Triphosphate ( ATP), energy units to be used by body cells. Phosphorous is a component of cell membranes (phospholipids). It is also found in nucleic acids (which make up DNA) An increased amount of sodium chloride (salt) in the dirt increases absorption of P. Phosphorous is found in plants. It is broken down in the caecum. It is found in most common commercial feeds. Too much P in the diet reduces calcium absorption. Deficiency in P causes softening of the bones.
Magnesium (Mg) (macro mineral ) Magnesium is present in bone, muscles with some found in the blood and liver. In muscles magnesium attaches to ATP so that ATP can be used by the muscle cells. If magnesium is not present ATP cannot be used by the muscle and energy cannot be generated to make the muscle function. Magnesium is found in a variety of different feedstuffs One of the most common signs of magnesium deficiency is extreme nervousness. (magnesium is commonly seen in calmer supplements) One of the most common signs of magnesium deficiency is extreme nervousness. Other signs may include muscle tremors and ataxia (incoordination and unsteadiness)
Sodium (Na) (macro mineral) Sodium has an important role in nerve transmission. It assists with transporting substances such as glucose and amino acids. It assists with regulating body fluid, it is a major electrolyte. most feeds contain little sodium and it is often supplemented as sodium chloride (Salt - Na CI) however deficiency is rare but if it occurs signs may include decreased water intake and loss of appetite.
Potassium (K) (macro mineral) Potassium's biggest job is to be involved in skeletal muscle excitability through potassium ion channels.Mostly found in skeletal muscle, potassium therefore has an important role in muscle movement. It also helps to regulate body fluid and is also a major electrolyte. It supports the correct functioning of the nervous system. It is found in forage but is low in cereal grains Any excess in the diet is removed by the kidneys
Chlorine (CI) (macro mineral) Chlorine is found in the interstitial fluid (the fluid surrounding cells) it helps regulate body fluids and is an important electrolyte. Chlorine is also present in bile made in the liver to help to digest fats.It also helps to form hydrochloric acid which is secreted in the stomach. Chlorine is found in common salt, it also present in beet pulp, maize and forage (in small amounts).
Sulphur (S) (macro mineral) Sulphur is present in many froms throughout the body, for example; biotin (important for hoof health) and also chondroitin sulfate (important for joint health). Its found in insulin which regulates blood sugar levels. It is present in the essential amino acids; methionine and cystine (structural proteins). It is also found in heparin which helps prevent blood clots It is found in most plants in particular soya bean meal.
Cobalt (Co) (micro mineral) Microorganisms in the large intestine use cobalt from the diet and convert it to vitamin B12. B12 is used along with iron and copper to form and maintain blood cells. It is found in common feedstuffs and forage. Deficiency is rare but if it did occur would show up as B12 deficiency.
Iodine (I) (micro mineral) Iodine has one major function and that is controlling metabolic rate. Iodine is found in the T3 and T4 hormones which act upon the thyroid gland. All feed stuffs contain iodine. Seaweed / kelp is particularly rich in iodine.
Zinc (Zn) (micro mineral) Zinc makes up important parts in enzymes which are responsible for insulin production, blood clotting and wound healing. Zinc is present in the skin, liver, bones and muscles. Zinc is present in a variety of different feedstuffs Deficiencies include; hair loss, reduction in enzyme production and poor appetite. High levels of zinc in the diet can cause secondary copper deficiency as the two minerals compete for absorption. symptoms of this include stiffness of gait and enlarged epiphyses (ends of long bones)
Copper (Cu) (micro mineral) Copper gives blood vessels their elasticity. Copper is important for collagen and bone formation, it is essential for the mineralisation (hardening of bone) (important for young stock).It is also important in moving stores of iron to areas where they are needed, as well as the creation of melanin (coat pigment). Another important function of Cu is to help create red blood cells. Lastly, it helps keep the central nervous system running correctly. Cu is one mineral that can be highly influenced by other minerals.he following mineral forms can all reduce the absorption rate of Cu to varying degrees: Calcium salts, iron,mercury, molybdenum and zinc. Dietary Sources include molasses, beet pulp and linseed. One of the first signs of deficiency is lack of pigment in the hair (white spots may appear) and poor quality coat. Deficiency causes anemia and also infertility.
Iron (Fe) (micro mineral) ron assists with oxygen transport around the body. It makes up haemoglobin, the oxygen transport molecule. It is also found in the contractile proteins actin and myosin in the skeletal muscles. Over consumption of cobalt, copper and zinc can affect the uptake of iron. Forages are high in iron whereas cereal grains are low.
Manganese (Mn) (micro mineral) Manganese is present in chondroitin sulfate - important in bone formation. It also activates enzymes important for the digestion of lipids can carbohydrates. It can be found in forage and cereals. Excess amounts reduce the amount of phosphorous absorption. Deficiency causes bone abnormalities but this is rare.
Selenium (Se) (micro mineral) Selenium detoxifies substances which are toxic to cells (antioxidant) it also controls thyroid hormone metabolism. Sources include grass and mineral licks. Deficiencies cause myopathy (muscle weakness) Toxicity causes sweating, colic, increased heart and breathing rates, hair loss and poor hoof condtion
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