2.1 Molecules to Metbolism

CiNa Hicks
Flashcards by CiNa Hicks, updated more than 1 year ago
CiNa Hicks
Created by CiNa Hicks over 3 years ago


Flashcards on 2.1 Molecules to Metbolism , created by CiNa Hicks on 02/08/2017.

Resource summary

Question Answer
The 4 most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things? Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen
what are inorganic molecules? Any substance that doesn't contain carbon (except for oxides and carbonits)
what is an organic compound? Contains two or more atoms of carbon
what are the main types of carbon? carbohydrates, protein, lipids, nucleic acids.
What are carbon's bonding properties? Long chains Extremely stable - allows for the basic building blocks Infinite number of compounds Can form rings Can form single, double and triple.
What is the simplest form of an organic molecule? Hydrocarbon the largest family of organic molecules that are composed of hydrogen atoms bonded to a chain of carbon atoms - methane hydrocarbon is covalent
Explain carbohydrates? composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, all carbs contain C, H, O formula: (CH20)n many are used for energy or structural purpose
what are lipids? composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Less O then carbs Long term energy storage important components of cell membranes lipid example: triglycerides, steroids, waxes and phospholipids
what is the difference between animal fats and plant fats? animal fat (saturated) are soil at room temp plant fat (unsaturated) are liquid at room temp
what are proteins? composed nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. All have N some proteins also contain S in R-groups composed of one or more chains of amino acids. distinguished by their 'R' groups.
what are nucleic acids? composed nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and phosphorus. composed of nucleic tides each nucleotide contains a base, sugar and a phosphate.
what is the base of DNA? sugar is deoxyribose (DNA) it ribose (RNA) base: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Uracil substitutes for thymine in RNA
what is an amino acid molecule? composed of an amine (NH2) group, a carboxyl (COOH) group, and an R group. 20 amino acids exist that compose all proteins Each amino acid differs because the R groups are different.
what is in a Glucose molecule? A reducing sugar that contains C6H12O6 most commonly found in a ringed structure and is the main product formed by photosynthesis Energy molecule used in aerobic respiration. a monomer of starch, cellulose
what is in a Ribose molecule? Pentose sugar of RNA and RUBO (Calvin cycle) CH5O105 differs from deoxyribose (sugar in DNA) because it has an extra -oh group on the 2nd carbon of the ring
What is in a fatty acid molecule? the main component of triglycerides and phospholipids. non-polar, therefore hydrophobic covalently bonded. saturated - single bonds with hydrogen unsaturated - double bond/s.
What are monosaccharides? glucose ribose fructose galacotose
what are disaccharides? sucrose maltose lactose
What is the metabolism? set of life-sustaining chemical reactions is catalysed by enzymes. reactions occur in the cytoplasm, some are extracellular in digestion
what is anabolism? Condensation synthesis Release H2O monomers link together (anabolized) to form polymers
Condensation synthesis with monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides repeated additions of monosaccharides produce a polysaccharide. links two monosaccharide monomers forming one disaccharide molecule and one H2O molecule.
condensation synthesis of fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides 3 separate condensation synthesis reacts 3 fatty acid monomers to a single glycerol monomer forming one triglyceride molecule and 3 H2O molecules.
condensation synthesis of amino acids and polypeptides. two amino acid monomers are linked to form a dipeptide releasing one H2O molecule repeated condensation synthesis reactions produce polypeptides (proteins)
what is catabolism? The breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules including the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers. Energy is released.
what is hydrolysis? catalysed by enzymes. polymers are broken down (catabolized) into monomers (digestion) with H2O used as a source of H and OH group.
Hydrolysis of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. catalysed by enzymes. Polysaccharides can be broken down into monosaccharides with H2O molecules used as a source of H and OH groups.
Hydrolysis of fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides. Catalysed by enzymes. Triglyceride is broken down into one glycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules with 3 H2O molecules used as a source of H and OH groups
Hydrolysis of amino acids and polypeptides. Catalyzed by enzymes. Polypeptide is broken down into seperate amino acids with H2O molecules used as a source of H and OH groups
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