History - Black Civil Rights

Flashcards by alexchownahern, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by alexchownahern almost 7 years ago


Flashcards on History - Black Civil Rights, created by alexchownahern on 04/20/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What were Jim Crow Laws? Jim Crow laws segregated all public facilities in the southern states of America including schools, public transport, parks etc.
What was the Double V campaign? Victory in Europe (WW2) and at home (racism).
Why was WW2 so significant in the struggle for Civil Rights? Huge numbers of African Americans enlisted in the army and proved their bravery and loyalty to America. This changed many peoples attitudes towards Black people. Experiences made black people more likely to campaign for Civil Rights as they had experienced and witnessed less racism in Europe.
What was the NAACP? The National association for the advancement of coloured people. An organisation set up to fight for African American Civil Rights. The Double V campaign encouraged the growth of the NAACP.
What did Truman do for the issue of Civil rights. Truman was keen to improve civil rights partly because there was a lot of international pressure on the US to do so. However many of Truman's ideas were too radical for the southern states and although he was successful at raising it as an issue nothing really changed.
What was the Brown vs Topeka case about and why was is significant? Linda Brown was a school girl who was forced to travel blocks to get to school despite the fact that there was a school just down the road. Her father Oliver Brown decided to appeal to the state who rejected the appeal. Brown then, with the help of the NAACP, took the case to the supreme court who agreed and said that schools must be segregated. However there was no date to when the schools must be desegregated so many schools kept putting it off and didn't desegregate. Nevertheless some schools were desegregated and the case gave the black community the confidence that they could challenge laws in the struggle for their civil rights with the backing of the NAACP. However the fact that many schools didn't desegregate and that many influential figures including the president were against black civil rights reminded them that it was going to be extremely challenging.
What happened at Little Rock High School in 1957 and why were the events so important? In 1957 9 black students enrolled at Little Rock High School in Arkansas however they were denied entry to the school on the first day by national guards sent by governor Faubus. The students were also subject to racist abuse on their journey. This prompted President Eisenhower to get involved and send federal troops in to protect the students. The troops remained with the students for a year. This was important as is sent out a message to all states that they couldn't ignore federal law. It also involved the president who demonstrated that civil rights was an issue that could no longer be ignored. For many people, both inside and outside the US it was the first time that they saw the racial hatred that existed in the Southern States and this meant that the cause gained sympathy and support.
What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott? In December 1955 NAACP activist Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white person. She was arrested for breaking bus laws. This caused an outcry among the black community and prompted the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) to organise a bus boycott lead by Martin Luther King. The boycott lasted just over a year until the bus company went bankrupt and the supreme court declared Montgomery's bus laws illegal.
Why was the bus boycott so significant? Because it showed that peaceful methods were effective as they gained sympathy and the trust of the supreme court. It also showed the power of the black community and that if they worked together then they were a powerful force. Martin Luther King also emerged as a leader during the Boycott which gave the movement a leader that allowed them to progress further in their struggle.
What were the 1957 and 1960 Civil Rights acts 1957 - Forbade any person from interfering with another person's vote. However the act wasn't enforced so very few black people voted. 1960 - Built on the 1957 act by giving more power to police and judges to protect voters and made local authorities keep a record of who voted. However again the act wasn't successful and the two acts combined only increased the number of African American voters by 3%.
What were the Greensboro Sit-in's? In 1960 4 young black men sat at the 'white only' lunch counter at Woolworth's in Greensboro. Over time they were joined by more and more black and white students. The sit-ins gained huge media attention and continued for six months inspiring other sit-ins and similar forms of protest across the south. Many restaurants and cafes became desegregated.
Who were the Freedom riders? In 1960 bus terminals were to be intergrated. Members of CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) wanted to test this law so in 1961 they left Washington DC by bus to travel to New Orleans to make sure that Bus facilities had been de-segreagetd. However many hadn't so they rode on segreagted buses and used other public facilities that were segregated to raise awareness of the issue. The riders faced violence and in Alabama the bus was attacked.
Name and breifly describe 3 Civil Rights groups, other than the NAACP. Student Non Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was set up in 1960 and mainly consisted of university students both black and white. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was set up by James Farmer. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) led by Martin Luther King trained civil rights activists in non violent protest and how to handle the law, police and media.
Who was James Meredith and what did he do? He was the first African American to attend the segregated Mississippi State Univeristy after the Supreme court forced them to accept him. Meredith was protected by hundreds of Federal guards sent in by Kennedy. White racist students began rioting and this resulted in two deaths and 70 being wounded. Meredith was not easily accepted adn the soliders had to stay on site for the duration of his 3 year course but he finally graduated with a degree in political science.
What happened in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963 and what was the importance of the events? Many Civil rights activists marched in to push the southern states to desegregate. Birmingham was on of the worst areas for racism in the south and MLK and his followers felt that if the could desgregate Birmingham then they could desgregate anywhere. The racist police chief Bull Conor banned demonstrations so when the march went ahead he resorted to violence, releasing dogs and using hose pipes on the peaceful protestors. President Kennedy then got involved and ordered Birmingham to desegregate. This generated sympathy for the movement across the world and support in the Northern states of America.
What happened in Birmingham later that year after the protests? 4 Black Children died and 22 others were injured in a church bomb attack. The bomb was planted in the Basement by 4 member of the KKK. The attack resulted in violence throughout Birmingham by African Americans.
What was the march on Washington and why was it so significant? In August 1963 200,000 black people and 50,000 white people marched together in Washington to pressure Kenedy to introduce a new Civil Rights bill. MLK his famous 'I have a dream speech'. There was no trouble at the march, not even litter dropping. The event had a tremendous impact on the US public opinion.
What happened in Selma, Alabama in 1965? There were a lack of people and although it was banned King led a march against Jim Clark, a racist sheriff who was preventing many black people from voting. The march was met with violence in what became known as 'bloody Sunday' so he withdrew. On the second march the protesters turned back again due to the police but on the third march protesters protected from police and troops under federal command. This led to the passing of the Voting Rights Act.
What were Martin Luther King's scuccesses and limitations and when was he assassinated? Instrumental in the struggle for Civil rights. Organised marches and peaceful processes that gained sympathy and support for the movement. He united black and white protestors and influenced politicans. Pressured authorities and the president to de-segregate many facilities in towns across the south. His 'I have a dream' speech on the march to Washington is hailed as one of the greatest ever. However his methods were very slow and many people became fustrated with him. He was assassinated in 1968.
What were Kennedy's Successes and Limiations. Kennedy made a speech committing himself to civil rights. Appointed Thurgood Marshall as first African American circuit judge. Confronted states that opposed civil rights. He sent 2,300 troops to ensure James Meredith could stay at Mississippi university. Rate of unemployment remained at twice the level it was for whites Some southern states blocked JFK's actions.
Who was Malcolm X and what were his beliefs? Another Civil rights activist but his beliefs were a stark contrast to those of MLK. Malcom X used violent methods and believed in Self defence, not walking away and bringing freedom about by any means nessacery. Malcolm X gained support form more militant black people who were tired of MLKs slow methods and Muslims as he was stronly influenced and connected to the Nation of Islam, led by Elijah Muhammad. However after Pilgramige to Mecca his beliefs cahnges and he no longer hated the white man. He began to reject the beliefs of the nation of Islam and after he left them in 1965 and formed the Organisation of Afro American Unity, Elijah Muhammad had him assassinated.
What were the successes and limitations of Malcolm X's methods? Successes: They made Black people feel proud and enpowered them to be pround of their heritage. It sent out a clear message to white people that black people weren't weak and wouldn't be bullied. Limitations: The methods didn't give them any sympathy or support and no laws changed.
What acts were introduce in 1964 and 1965 to help Civil Rights? Kennedy's successor Lyndon B. Johnson was just as committed to Civil Rights as Kennedy was and he used the sympathy of Kennedy's death to pass the 1964 Civil Rights act. The act made it Illegal for local Government to discriminate in areas such as housing and employment. In 1965 Johnson passed the Voting Rights Act which ended literacy tests and allowed government agents to inspect voting procedures.
Who were the Black Panthers? A group formed in 1966 to promote Black power and self-defence and to protect African American neighbourhoods from police brutality. They became popular especially after MLKs death. Stokely Carmichael was made their honoary Prime Minister. The group clashed reguarly with the police and Edgar Hoover head of the FBI called them 'the greatest threat to internal security of the country.
What were the Successes and limiations of President Johnson? Successes: Passed the 1964 Civil rights act and the 1965 voting rights act. Appointed Thurgood Marshall as first black supreme court judge. Limitations: His focus on the Vietnam war detracted from improving other things. Many argue his successes were just sympathy for Kennedy.
What were the Successes and Limitations of President Nixon? Successes: Almost all schools de-segregated, 120 cities had black mayors by 1975, more blackpeople were voting. Limitations: People still lived in poverty, still race riots, his policy of New federalism (giving money to states and they choose how to spend it) meant that racist states didn't distrabute money evenly, Civil Rights weren't is prioty and he made racist comments in private.
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