Natural Hazards

becky_e
Flashcards by , created about 5 years ago

GCSE Geography (Natural Hazards) Flashcards on Natural Hazards , created by becky_e on 05/14/2014.

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becky_e
Created by becky_e about 5 years ago
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Question Answer
What are the primary effects of Earthquakes? buildings collapse roads crack bridges collapse glass shatters gas pipes break electricity pylons fall water pipes break
What are the secondary effects of Earthquakes? fires explosions floods / land slides homelessness + business destruction tsunamis diseases unemployment insurance claims
What are the primary effects of Volcanic eruptions? Buildings destroyed by fires explosions weight of ash; crops / livestock destroyed
What are the secondary effects of volcanic eruptions? Mudflows change in landscape / climate food / water supply disrupted homelessness business forced to close cost of insurance claims unemployment
What is the Richter scale? a measure of earthquake strength
What are the different layers of the earth, starting from the middle working outwards... earth.gif (image/gif)
What are tectonic plates? large segments of the earths crust
What is the liquid rock below the earths surface called? magma
Which type of crust is more dense? and therefore sinks? oceanic crust
Which type of crust is less dense? continental crust
What are the differences between continental and oceanic crust? Continental = land crust / thicker / less dense Oceanic = water crust / thinner / denser
What happens at a destructive plate margin? Geography-A-Destructive-Plate-Margin.jpg (image/jpg)
What happens at a conservative plate boundary? Conservative_boundary.jpg (image/jpg)
What happens a lot at conservative plate boundary's? snag (stress builds as the plates catch on each other until it is released quickly usually causing an earthquake)
What happens at a constructive plate boundary? seafloor.jpg (image/jpg)
What are you likely to see at constructive plate boundary's? Volcanic islands
What are the reasons people live near tectonically active areas? Geothermal energy Tourism Agriculture Geographical inertia Minerals Ignorance Scenery
What is retrofitting? the addition of new technology to older buildings
What is the epicentre of an earthquake? the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
How can you earthquake proof a building? photo.JPG (image/JPG)
How many people in the world now live in Bamboo houses? 1 million+
Describe an earthquake case study in a small amount of detail... Costa Rica January 2009 6.1 all bamboo house in epicenter survived 34 dead
Where are earthquake resistant houses being constructed from local and recycled materials? Gujart, India
Describe some of the features in earthquake-resistant housing in Gujarat in India... _1780053_earthquake_proof_300inf.gif (image/gif)
Why are bamboo houses effective against earthquakes? Bamboo is very strong, yet bends easily and has been proven to withstand much earthquake shaking
What is earthquake preparedness? People being aware of the actions to take before, during and after an earthquake to reduce casualties
How can the government make sure people are earthquake 'prepared'? regular drills teach in schools posters lectures
What is an example of the government making sure the people are prepared for earthquake? Japan 'Disaster Prevention Day' 1st September - day of 1923 Great Kanto in Tokyo people are reminded of what to do in the event of an earthquake
What are things before an earthquake you can do to prepare? create a disaster plan prepare your home - secure heavy or damageable furniture
What are building codes? regulations which state how a building should be constructed in order for it to be safe
What do scientists look for an increase in if a volcano might erupt? Seismic activity
If it clear that a volcanic eruption is likely, then a course of action has to be decided upon. Several options could be considered including: restricting access to the area evacuating the area reducing the effects of the eruption
What is laser ranging? using laser beams and mirrors to detect minute changes in the shape of the land.
What is laser ranging used for? to detect any bulges in the volcano
What is evacuation? movement of people away from a place of danger to a place of safety
What is an example of an evacuation plan for an earthquake? May 2006 Mount Merapi overlooking Yogyakarta 17,000 people people into danger were put into emergency shelters orange code - then to red
How can people prepare for a volcanic eruption? Improved building design sealing doors and windows increased awareness volcanic hazards emergency kit
What are storm surges? abnormal rise of the sea along a shore as the result of the storm, sometimes called a tidal surge
What are the physical and environmental effects of tropical storms? Structural damage sensitive environments destroyed loss of animal habitats fresh water fish die in storm fishing and other boats damaged
Social effects of tropical storms? trauma / stress water borne diseases communities broken up food and water shortages job losses looting
Economic effects of tropical storm? Repair and insurance claims loss of income crops destroyed exports lost oil prices may increase
Example of Hurricane? Hurricane katrina Category 5 2005 August 1800 dead $108 billion storm surge
How hot does the sea have to be for tropical storms? 27 degrees +
How far from the equator? between 10 and 30 degrees north and south of the equator
What are tropical storm strengths measured in? The Saffir Simpson scale (1 being weakest - 5 being strongest)
what are the stages in the formation of a tropical storms? 1.thunderstorms drift over warm seas 2. warm air from sea surface and the thunderstorms combine and warm air starts to rise 3. warm air rises, starts to spin in spiral, cools and condenses to make clouds 4.air starts to rise faster and cooler air is sucked downwards 5.moves over ocean
what direction do hurricanes travel in? westwards
what 3 steps to follow if a tropical storm is coming? forecast -> prepare -> act
what is a mandatory evacuation? an evacuation that is commanded by the authorities
What company forecasts hurricanes? National Hurricane Centre (Atlantic) Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (Pacific)
How to prepare for a hurricane? -education -emergency kit -windproof tiles -water-resistant windows -strengthened buildings
Example of an NGO (non government organization) helping people prepare for a hurricane? Bangladesh cyclone shelters homes on stilts educating women
natural cycle definition series of events in nature that are repeated over and over again
el nino definition a warning of the ocean surface off the western coast of south america
Why are hurricanes likely to increase? Global warming --> sea temp rises
Primary effects of wildfires? loss of life / injury destruction of property burning of crops water and air pollution health problems
Secondary effects of earthquakes? loss of jobs and income Homelessness rebuilding is costly insurance costs tourism loss economy fail :(
wildfire example? Black Saturday February 2009 Across state of Victoria 173 died 400 individual fires
2 causes of wildfires? natural human
natural causes of wildfires? Lightning spontaneous heating volcanic eruptions
human causes of wildfires? accidents broken bottles slash and burn arson train wheels / machinery / barbeques
How do people respond to a wildfire? airplanes and helicopters air drop fire breaks fire fighters use foam and water backfire evacuation
How do people prevent and prepare for a wildfire? Volunteers remove debri+dead leaves Smokey Bear (used for over 60 years in USA) making homes fireproof make evacuation plans Geographical Information System has wildfire risk maps
Why will wildfires increase in the future? global warming wild land-urban interface natural cycle
What 3 things have been increasing in terms of wildfires? higher wildfire intensity higher cost of damage increased length of wildfire season