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A2 - Level SOCIOLOGY Flashcards on SOCIOLOGY UNIT 2: MASS MEDIA , created by sarahrudolf on 05/15/2014.

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Question Answer
What do sociologists mean by mass media? Mass media refers to media that reach large audiences, for example the Internet
What are some examples of traditional media and new media? Traditional media: newpapers, books, television, radio New media: internet, cable & satellite tv
What is meant by The Press? Privately owned newspapers & magazines that run as profit-making businesses
What is meant by Broadcasting? Broadcasting refers to television & radio. Public service broadcasting operates through the BBC & is funded by the television license fee
What is meant by electronic media? Electronic media refer to the Internet which provides the world wide web
What are some developments in the technology of the mass media? -Digital broadcasting (multichannel tv with high quality image & sound) -Interactivity (use handsets to interact with tv) -Convergence (telecommunications & computing can converge into one product, eg. access to twitter through mobile) -Internet allows people to see electronic versions of newspapers etc, & produce content like blogs, websites etc
What are some changing patterns of consumption of the media? -Over the last 25 years there has been a decline in readership of newspapers such as Daily Mail -Since the 1990s, household ownership of digital television & household internet access has grown
What 4 issues are the public repeatedly told wrong information about in the media? The Royal Statistical Society show that the public are repeatedly told false information on: -Benefit fraud -Immigration -Crime -Teen Pregnancy
In what way to the media present young people? The media represent young people in a way that in criminalized. Young people are being labelled 'antisocial' just for growing up
What is meant by socially constructed and what is normally socially constructed in the media? When something is socially constructed it means it is presenting things that people want to see. Newspapers are socially constructed
What is meant by norm referencing? Norm referencing is the way the news media states what is 'acceptable' & what is 'unacceptable'
What is meant by news values? News values are things that are seen as 'worthy' of going on the news such as: -Events that are extraordinary -Events that are personalized -Events that are dramatic
What is meant by agenda setting? Agenda setting is how newspapers have the power to 'set the agenda' - they don't tell us what to think but that to think about. Newspapers 'set the agenda' for public discussion
What is political socialization and how does the media influence our views on this? Political socialization is the process of which we gain our political beliefs & preferences. The media influences our views on politics by sharing biased stories in favor/against particular political parties.
What are 4 different ways to how audience's respond to the media? -Hypodermic Syringe Theory -Don't trust the media -Uses & Gratification Approach -The Decoding Approach
What is the Hypodermic Syringe Theory? The belief that audiences receive daily 'doses' of information & believe majority of what they hear. Product Placement supports this theory. People who support this theory believe the audience is PASSIVELY RECEIVING the media. An example of the Hypodermic Syringe theory: Orson Welles' radio broadcast about an alien invasion that everyone believed.
What statistics show that the Hypodermic Syringe theory isn't necessarily true? That 70% of the British public don't actually trust the media
What is the Uses & Gratification Approach? The belief that audience is what determines what is in the media because we use it for our uses & needs such as: -Information -Personal Identity -Personal Relationships -Entertainment & diversion
What is the Decoding Approach? The belief that audiences of the media are 'decoders' & we all interpret the media differently - the way we interpret the media is shaped by our backgrounds. People who support this approach believe that the audience is ACTIVELY INTERPRETING the media.
What is product placement? Process by which manufacturers or advertisers pay a fee in order for branded products to be displayed in media production.
What is the halo effect? The halo effect is when a beautiful person is expected to be more generous, trustworthy etc
What is the horns effect? The horns effect is when an ugly person is expected to be mean, sneaky etc
What is the PLURALIST approach to media ownership and control? Pluralists believe that: -There is no real link between ownership of the press & content of newspapers, they give people that they want to read. -Owners cannot influence the content of newpapers because if they give us what we don't want to read we stop buying them
What is the MARXIST approach to media ownership and control? Marxists believe that: -Owners of newspapers are wealthy & upper-class so they are in strong position to put their own personal views across to the audience -Owners of newspapers have control over what goes in them, they form multi-media conglomerates
What is meant by deviancy amplification? Deviancy amplification is when the reaction to a moral panic leads to more deviance being created. For example, if all black teenage boys are labelled as 'deviant' by the media, they have more chance of acting deviant
What is meant by mass popular culture? Mass popular is culture that majority of the population participates in, eg X-Factor. Opera & ballet aren't mass popular culture as they mainly attract the upper-class
What is meant by objectification of women in the media? Objectification of women refers to displaying women as sexual objects that are only suitable for meeting the sexual needs of men
What are some explanations for how far sociologists would agree that the mass media present a stereotype of women? -Promotion of feminism -Objectification - 'all grown up', 'lad mags', degrading to women -Successful & authoritative women are commonly shown
What do sociologists mean by globalisation? The process in which economies have become increasingly interconnected to an extent where one event in one country can create problems all over the world
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