1st Yr Rev: Biology

Zain Mirza
Mind Map by Zain Mirza, updated more than 1 year ago
Zain Mirza
Created by Zain Mirza about 7 years ago
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igcse Archive Mind Map on 1st Yr Rev: Biology, created by Zain Mirza on 05/21/2013.
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1st Yr Rev: Biology
1 Characteristics of Life
1.1 MRS GREN

Annotations:

  • An acronym helping you to remember the 7 characteristics of life.
1.1.1 Movement

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  • The to move all or some parts of the body in a period of time or at that moment.
1.1.2 Respiration

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  • The ability to release energy into living cells.
1.1.3 Sensitivity

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  • The ability to respond to the environment or changes in the environment.
1.1.4 Reproduction

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  • The ability to create the next generation by bisexual or a-sexual means.
1.1.5 Excretion

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  • The ability to remove harmful waste from the body.
1.1.6 Growth

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  • Permanently increase in size until maturity.
1.1.7 Nutrition

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  • The ability to consume food/fueling materials etc.
2 Classification

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  • Carl Linnaeus introduced the Binomial Naming System. This also told us how to format an organisms scientific name.
2.1 Taxonomy

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  • 'KP Crisps Often Form Greasy Spots' Human Being: Kingdom-  Animalia Phylum- Chordata Class- Mammalia Order- Primata Familie- Hominidae Genera- Homo Species- Sapiens Scientific Name: Homo Spiens (Computer italic, writing under lined). Taxonomy is classification of certain organisms, each step in the binomial naming system gets more and more specific.
2.2 Kingdoms

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  • There are 5 kingdoms of organisms:  Anamalia Plantae Fungi Bacteria Protoctista
2.2.1 Protoctista

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  • -Eukaryotic (Membrane bound nucleus) -Likes moist conditions (It has no drying protection) -Uni/Multicellular  -Hetra/Autotrophic  (Hetra- eats other organisms) (Auto- Photosenthysises )
2.2.2 Fungi

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  • -No Chlorophyll -Usually feeds on dead organisms -Extracellularly feeds using enzimes to break down and absorb nutrition, sometimes called Decompostition  -Ariel hypha (Spores for reproduction) -Feeding hypha (Enzimes) -Warmth/Water needed (Sometimes Oxygen) Hypha act as roots
2.2.3 Monera (Bacteria)

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  • -Unicellular -Prokaryotic (Free DNA) -Bacteria -Reproduce by splitting into 2 (Binary fisson. A-Sexual. Very fast.) -Have cell wall and flaggellum to help with movement
2.2.4 Plantae

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  • -Angiosperms (Flowering Plant) ok root system, live near water, reproduce with seeds in ovaries -Filicinophyta (Ferns, Fronds etc.) ok root system, needs to live in wet or damp places, reproduce spores -Bryophyta (Mosses liverwarts etc.) poor to rubbish root system, needs to live in water or very wet places reproduce by spores -Coniferophytas (evergreens), excellent root system, can dig very deep down using roots reproduce with seeds
2.2.5 Animalia

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  • -Vertebrates- Phylum Chordata -Invertebrates- Phylum Annelida long cylindrical bodies with an anus and feeding hole, divided into ring like segments Phylum Cnidaria may have stinging cells around opening in middle for feeding Phylum Mollusca muscular soft bodied, have stinging tentacles Phylum Echinodermata have leathery skin 5 limbs , sea earchins, starfish Phylum Arthropoda very wide range -Class Crustacea tough exoskeleton 3 pairs of legs 1 pair of antennae -Class Chillopoda a pair of legs per segment a pair of antennae -Class Diplipoda 2 pairs legs per segment, pair of antennae -Class Insecta may have pair of wings, usually 3 pairs legs, body divided into head, thorax abdomen. -Class Arachnida usually 4 pairs of legs 1 pair antennae
3 Microscopy
3.1 Conversions

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  • There are 4 main measures used in biology. Meters (m), Millimeters (mm), Micrometers (µm) and nanometers (nm). Between each unit is a thousand, so to get 1 unit smaller , *by 1000 and if you want to get 1 unit bigger /1000. It sounds confusing but think about it.
3.2 Microscopes
3.2.1 Magnification

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  • On a microscope the magnification= eypiece lens * high/low power objective lens. For a biological drawing the magnification = drawing size/actual size.
3.2.2 Parts of Microscope

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  • This will show parts of microscope from top to bottom. Eye piece lens, body tube, coarse adjustment knob, revolving nose piece, stage, stage clips, iris diaphragm, mirror. The fine tuning knob will be either a small knob or a disk. There are two stains you will put on a cell on the slide, iodine for plant cells and methanol blue for animal cells. The you would place the coverslip over the slide.
4 Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes
4.1 Eukaryotes

Annotations:

  • -DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) is found within the nucleus  -Cells are much bigger, up to 40µm -Can be uni/multicellular -many different types of organelles e.g mitochondria -cell walls sometimes present e.g in plant cells. -All organisms except bacteria
4.2 Prokaryotes

Annotations:

  • -DNA is not contained within the nucleus (Lies free in cytoplasm) -Avg diameter of a cell is 0.5-5µm -Always unicellular -Very few organelles -Cell wall always present -Refered to as bacteria -Arose about 4 billion years ago -Do not contain nucleui -Millions of different types of bacteria
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