The Peace Treaties

hcovell4475
Mind Map by hcovell4475, updated more than 1 year ago
hcovell4475
Created by hcovell4475 over 6 years ago
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GCSE History (The Peace Treaties) Mind Map on The Peace Treaties, created by hcovell4475 on 05/23/2013.
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The Peace Treaties
1 Aims of the Big Three
1.1 Lloyd George
1.1.1 Between France & USA - wanted Germany to be punished but not too harshly
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1.1.1
1.1.2 Wanted to get rid of navy as Britain felt threatened by it
1.1.3 Like Wilson, didn't want Germany to seek revenge
1.1.4 Keen for GB to carry on trading so didn't want to completely destroy
1.1.5 Under lots of pressure from British people to get harsh treaty
1.2 George Clemencou
1.2.1 A lot of damage was done (land, industry & people) Under pressure from people to made DE pay
1.2.2 Saw DE as threat so wanted to cripple them
1.3 Woodrow Wilson
1.3.1 He was an idealist and wanted to make peace
1.3.2 Should not be too harsh because otherwise Germany would seek revenge.
1.3.3 14 points
1.3.3.1 1.No secret treaties
1.3.3.2 2. Freedom of movement on sea
1.3.3.3 3.Free trade between countries
1.3.3.4 4. Disarmament - ALL countries
1.3.3.5 5.Colonies have say in future
1.3.3.6 6. Russia free of DE troops
1.3.3.7 7. Beligium is independent
1.3.3.8 8. Alsace-Lorraine to France
1.3.3.9 10/12. Self-determination for Eastern Eu & Turkish Empire
1.3.3.10 11/13. Poland be independent and serbia & PO access to sea
1.3.3.11 14. LoN settle disputes
2 Other treaties
2.1 St Germain - Austria
2.1.1 Land - to Italy, Poland, Transylvania to Romania, Yugoslavia & Czechoslovakia
2.1.2 Reparations not paid because of economic collapse
2.1.3 Military Restrictions of 30,000 men
2.1.4 Old empire divided into small states meaning economy collapsed
2.2 Trianon - Hungary
2.2.1 Land lost to Czechoslovakia, Transylvania, Yugoslavia & Romania
2.2.2 Reparations not paid collapse of Hungary's economy in early 1920s meant nothing was paid
2.2.3 No more than 35,000 men
2.3 Neulley - Bulgaria
2.3.1 Lost land to Greece & Yugoslavia but gained a little from Turkey
2.3.2 Paid £100 million
2.3.3 Limited to 20,000 men
2.4 Sevres - Turkey
2.4.1 Lost land to Greece
2.4.2 Straits of the Dardanelles opened to ships of all nations
2.4.3 Ottoman Empire split - lots of Turkey's old possessions given to LoN as mandates
2.4.4 Allied troops in Turkey to uphold treaty
2.5 Lausanne - Turkey
2.5.1 Uprising of Kemal against Sultan & overthrew him. Allies not prepared to fight so new treaty
2.5.2 No reparations
2.5.3 No military restrictions
2.5.4 Allied troops had to leave
3 Versailles
3.1 Why Germany hated it
3.1.1 Did not agree with war guilt clause
3.1.2 Didnt agree that they had lost war - just agreed to a ceasefire
3.1.3 Horrified that they were to lose 10% of land - all overseas colonies - 12% population
3.1.4 German people often lived under foreign rule
3.1.5 Couldn't afford reparations
3.1.6 Lost pride without forces
3.2 Impact on Germany
3.2.1 Political
3.2.1.1 Kaiser fled to Holland & allies insisted on democratic govt. (Ebert)
3.2.1.2 Left Wing
3.2.1.2.1 Communists tried to take over & introduce Soviets (called Spartacists)
3.2.1.2.2 Ex-Soldiers called Freikorps fought against them.
3.2.1.3 Right Wing
3.2.1.3.1 Used Freikorps to subdue Communist threat. In 1920 Wolfgang Kapp tried to start revolution but the Kapp Putsch failed when workers when on strike. 1923 Munich Putsch also failed
3.2.2 Social
3.2.2.1 Strikes & Unemployment, poverty, street crime, facists fought in street
3.2.3 Economic
3.2.3.1 Reparations intolerable strain on economy
3.2.3.2 1921 1st of £50m
3.2.3.2.1 1922 - nothing so French invaded Ruhr to take compensation as raw materials
3.2.3.2.1.1 German govt told workers to strike - lack of production caused German currency to collapse
3.2.3.2.1.1.1 German govt. needed to pay workers so printed more money > hyper inflation so solutions were...
3.2.3.2.1.1.1.1 New govt.
3.2.3.2.1.1.1.2 New currency - Rentenmark
3.2.3.2.1.1.1.3 Dawes Plan - negotatiated to get American loans - also reparations payments renegotiated and French soldiers left Ruhr
3.3 What did it involve?
3.3.1 LoN set up
3.3.2 What Land and Who To?
3.3.2.1 Eupen & Malmedy (Belgium)
3.3.2.2 Alsace Lorraine (France)
3.3.2.3 West Prussia & Posen (Poland)
3.3.2.4 North Schweswig (Denmark)
3.3.2.5 Danzig & the Saar (LoN Control for 15 yrs)
3.3.2.6 Germany took land from Russia in Brest-Litovsk. Used to creat new countries : Poland, Estonia, Lithuania & Latvia
3.3.2.7 Colonies given to Britain as mandates
3.3.2.8 Rhineland becomes Demilitarised Zone
3.3.3 Limit Forces
3.3.3.1 army = 100,000 men
3.3.3.2 Navy = 6 battleships & no submarines
3.3.3.3 No airforce
3.3.4 Forbade Anschluss with Austria
3.3.5 War Guilt Clause (DE to blame)
3.3.6 Reparations of £6,600m
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