Pompeii and Herculaneum

Elizabeth Maras
Mind Map by Elizabeth Maras, updated more than 1 year ago
Elizabeth Maras
Created by Elizabeth Maras over 5 years ago


Mind Map on Pompeii and Herculaneum, created by Elizabeth Maras on 07/16/2014.

Resource summary

Pompeii and Herculaneum
1 Geographical Content
1.1 The physical environment:the geographicalsetting, natural features and resources of Pompeii andHerculaneum.
1.1.1 Pompeii and Herculaneumlocated in Campania in southern Italy.  The geographicalsetting and naturalfeatures of Vesuvius o Largely flatlands with occasionalmoundsformed by lava o High point of area is Vesuvius(1277m) and has a 11kmcircumference. o Very fertile soil[Florus], idealfor growing crops and grazing animals o Hotsprings o Sarno Riverflowed through the Campanian region. o Both towns were onlooking the sea which facilitated trade with other parts ofthe Mediterranean.
1.1.2 Climate o Pleasant – hot dry summers with sea breezes andmild wet winters. o Annualrainfall on coastis about 845mm(lowerthanNSW today)
1.1.3 Resources o Olives: oil is extracted and used in perfumes, cooking, bread, lighting and heating o Grapes: used tomake wine e.g. atthe Villa ofthe Mysteries. This wine was known forits potency, notflavour[Pliny the elder]. o Otherfruits: peaches, apricots, lemons, cherries, plums, pears and figs. o Crops: wheat, barley and cabbages. o Trees: willow, alder, beech and oak. o Volcanicmaterial: pumice was used for building roads and houses. o Fish: plentiful and was used tomake garumsauce. o Wool: Senecamentionsthat a flock of 600 sheep were killed by the 62AD earthquake.
1.1.4 There were 8 entrancesto the town.Names based on where gateslead to,for exampleHerculaneumgate, Marine gate.  Towers atregularintervals along the walls.  Fiorelli(1860) devised a numbering systemto identify housesmore easily as opposed to dubious namesthat are based on whatisinside the house,for example theHouse ofthe Faun. o Town divided into nine regions[REG] This wasthe 1 st number noted by Roman numerals o The 2 nd numberis aHindu‐Arabic number and identifiesthe insulate o The 3 rd numberis also aHindu‐Arabic number and identifiesthe specific building.  In Pompeii,themain streets‘decumani’ intersected with the side streets‘cardini’  Houses were builtright up to the street.  Stepping stones on road were placed perhaps when itrained to provide access acrossstreets. They were designed to allow cartsto easily pass.
1.1.5 Herculaneum  AsHerculaneumislargely unexcavated, itissmall and does not use region numbers, justinsulae and building numbers.  Houses are larger perhaps due to being a porttown andmany Roman Senators owning houses here. For example, MarcusNonius Balbus.  More double story houses perhaps due to the views and trying to catch the ocean breeze.  Herculaneumhad walls howeverthey weren’t as extravagant as Pompeii.
1.1.6 Similaritiesto both towns:  Townslaid outin rectangular blocks or‘insulae’ giving thema grid‐like pattern. This was a phil‐Hellenic influence.  There is no sense ofzoning,thatis,separate areasforindustry, commercial, recreational and residential areas.  There were gutters  Streets were paved and notmade of dirt.
2 The Nature of Sources and Evidence
2.1 The range of available sources, both written and archaeological, including ancient writers, official inscriptions, graffiti, wall paintings,statues,mosaics, human and animalremains.
2.1.1 Pliny the Elder wrote aboutthe physical attributes of Campania,fish, medicinal plants,Gardens of Pompeii and otherfacets of commercial life. o Pliny the Younger wrote to Tacitus about his account ofthe eruptions of Vesuvius and the reactions and fates ofthe people. Pliny’s account however was 25 years afterthe eruption and itis biased in the sense that Pliny tried to glorify his uncle. In thisregard, itmay not be entirely accurate though we have archaeological evidence to support/refute what he says. o Strabo talks aboutthe geography and climate of Campania. o Seneca talks aboutthe Earthquake of 62AD. o Dio Cassius:He writes aboutthe eruption of Vesuvius based on the account of people living aroundNaples and other cities of Vesuvius.His account was in MedievalGreek and hence itstranslationmay lead to some ambiguities. (2012) All Rights Reserved 3 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au Nevertheless,some ofthe things he saysseemfarfetched liked people gathered inmassesin
2.1.2 Official Inscriptions: o Sources are evidence forthe structure of government, prominentfamilies, financial contributionsto construction of public buildings as well as economic and political aspects ofsociety. o One example isthe riot between the Pompeiians andNucerians atthe Pompeii amphitheatre 59AD whereNero banned gladiatorial contestsfor 10 years.
2.1.3 Graffiti o Came in twomain types, inscribed or painted. o Most were propagandamessagesto urge citizensto vote for a particular candidate though some were to promote gladiators. There is an issue with theirinterpretation asthey appearfragmentary and ambiguous. o Othertopicsincluded, love, Roman bars,recreation and advertising women at brothels. o By advertising/promoting a candidate for office or win as a gladiator, a client‐patron relationship was developed: “PopidusNatalis, client, with the worshippers ofIsis, proposes Cuspius Pansa as aedile”. o Messages were scratched onto the walls of houses. Itseemsit was an accepted practice and citizens were not annoyed atthis due tomany positivemessages being left on the walls. o We do have an issue with the dates of when the graffiti wasinscribed though in Ancienttimes, perhapsthis could be distinguished by the ‘freshness’ ofthe work if it wasinscribed into the cement. o By the countless number ofinscriptions, itis clearthat Pompeii was a lite
2.1.4 Statues/Sculptures o Were in bronze ormarble o Useful indicator ofsocialstatus
2.1.5  Wall Paintings(Frescoes) o Categorised into ‘Four Pompeian Styles’ devised by Augusto Mau. o It was aHellenistic influence. o Depictedmythologicalsceneslike ‘The Sacrifice ofIphigenia’fromtheHouse ofthe Tragic Poet.
2.1.6 Mosaics o Ranged fromgeometric patternsto complex designs and are composed of thousands oftesserae (tiny chips of coloured glass orstone). o Found on floors,rooves, columns and walls. o Depictedmythologicalsceneslike in theHouse ofthe Faun (Alexander vs Darius atIssus) o Also in theHouse ofthe tragic Poetin the Vestibulum“Cave Canum”.
2.1.7 Human and animalremains o Skeletalremains, bones and casts are a valuable source ofinformation about victims. We can inquire into a victim’ssex, age, appearance, height, health, diet, occupation and cause of death. o Skeletons are preserved in good condition due to being covered by 20mof pumice and ash. o Unearthed remains are preserved by either epoxy resin or plaster casts. (2012) All Rights Reserved 4 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au o The Biselsisters, namely Sara have conducted research into victims however theymake spurious conclusions. Many oftheir conclusions are based on skeletalremainsfound on the beach atHerculaneumthough theirsample size issmall and notindicative ofthe entire population. o In terms of animalremains, dog and pig casts have beenmade indicating perhapsthese animals were farmed and consumed by the people of Vesuvius. Also horses,mules and goats.
2.1.8 The limitations,reliability and evaluation ofsources.  Due to the carelessness ofthose who have tried to excavate Pompeii and Herculaneumin the past,much ofthe evidence has been destroyed orstolen, leading tomany gapsin our knowledge which prohibits usfrommaking conclusive deductions on the lives of people in Vesuvius.  Atsome pointsin time,there has been little documentation. With tourismand exposure to the elements, artefacts/houses/remains have been lost.  We are limited by the lack of archaeological written evidence in terms ofletters, poems and stories.Our conclusions aremainly based on the tangible evidence which may be only partially true.  Herculaneumhas been partially excavated and hence there are gapsin our understanding. Thismeansthatthe conclusions wemakemay be false.  Many ofthe skeletalremains aremixed togetherso analysis on demographics may bemisleading
2.1.9 Campania was an unstable volcanic region, prone to earth tremors and otherseismic activity. The people had no understanding of nature or warning signs ofthe impending danger of Vesuvius.  No exact date forthe eruption can bemade by the archaeological evidence due to it being ambiguous. The eruption however wasin 79AD.  Pliny to Tacitus: The appearance ofthe explosion waslike a pine tree asitrose to a great height and then spread out. It appeared white, dirty and blotchy due to the mixture of Earth and ash. Buildings were being blown away fromtheirfoundations and shaking violently.  Dio Cassius: People believed thatthe world was being wasted away into chaos. People fled though some remained in the theatre. Eruption destroyed allfish and birds. The ash even reached Syria and Egypt.  Sigurdsson: In the 1980’s, he examined the grain sizesin the volcanic strata to reconstructthe phases ofthe eruptions. The two phases, The Plinian andNuee Ardente are fromhis work.He also concluded thatmo
2.1.10 The eruption had two phases: o Plinian phase: Initial explosion, greatthrust of cloud of ash/pumice/gases fromthe craterformed the 33kmhigh eruption column. It deposited upon Pompeii and was 2.5mhigh. ForHerculaneum, only light ash and pumice feel due toNW winds blowing the cloud towards Pompeii. Whilstsome people tried to flee atthistime and were struck down by large rock (2012) All Rights Reserved 5 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au fragments or collapsingmasonry,these people were aminority. The majority took refuge whereverthey could. o Pyroclastic phase: Pyroclastic flows covered Pompeii. They were formed afterthe collapse ofthe eruption column. These were hot avalanches of pumice, ash and gasesthat were very destructive.Herculaneumwas overwhelmed by a series of pyroclastic surgesthat were travelling atspeeds up to 200km/h followed by flows. These had far greater consequencesto Pompeii.
2.1.11  Causes of death: o Baxtersays ofthe 41 bodies he analysed, about half were consistent with asphyxiation and thermalshock. o De Carolis and Patricellisuggestthrough collapsing buildings and the accumulation of ash/debris. o For people struck by the pyroclastic surges,they were killed instantly.
2.1.12 The economy:trade, commerce, industries, occupations  Pompeii and Herculaneumwere relatively small places and therefore had small local economies.  Trade: o Vital aspect of both Pompeii andHerculaneum o Pedlars came all across Campania onmarket day to selltheirmanufactured merchandise like shoes as well as plants. Perfumes, dyes and clothes also sold. o Most well known exports were wine, olive oil and garumsauce. o Pompeii imported lampsfromthe northern parts of Italy, pottery fromGaul, oilfromsouthern Spain, wine fromSpain, Sicily and Crete and furniture from Naples
2.1.13  Commerce: o 600 excavated privately owned shops, workshops, bars,taverns and inns. o Basilica was a law court and a place where businessmanmet clients and signed contracts. Mention Iucundus. Markets: o On both sides ofthe forumand were regulated by two aedilesto ensure the marketsran smoothly, goodsmeasured and priced accurately, quality maintained and city regulations were upheld. o Macellum:North Eastside offorum. Specialised in the sale offish andmeat. Coins have been found dating back toNero’stime indicating thisis amarket. Fish scalesfound in underground channelsindicating this was a fishmarket. There was also a smalltemple forsacrificial banquets or as an auction room and amoney changing place. o Olitorium: Sold cereal and cropsto individuals and bakeries. Mensa ponderia measured foodstuff. o Market day was on Saturn’sDay. Travelling Pedlars across Campania sold manufactured goodslike shoes whilstlocalfarmerssold agricultural and garden products. o Coinage: quadran lowest coina
2.1.14 Industry: o Centre oftextilesindustry. Fullones would bleach, dye,spin and weave wool. Wool wassold fromthe Building of Eumachia in the Fori Civili. (2012) All Rights Reserved 6 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au [Moeller]Perhaps, asJongman notes,the textile industry was not aslarge. Example: Fullery of Stephanus. o Wine: Villassuch asthe Villa Regina had a torculariumand 18dolia were found forthe storage and fermentation of wine. o GarumSauce: Curtissuggests 28% of all fish sauce came fromAulus Umbricius Scaurus’shop. o Thermopolia: 200 in Pompeii. Found in great numbers near entrances perhapsto nourish famished travellers. Largestthermopolia found in Herculaenum. o Cauponae: Mostfamousis Asellina’sInn.Cooley saysthat cauponae are presentin every insulae. o Bakeries: 28 in Pompeii, 2 inHerculaneum.Ovens are likemodern pizza ovensthough they are small. Evidence: carbonised loaves have been found in ovens. Bakery of Popidius Priscus at Pompeii and the Bakery of Sextu
2.1.15  Occupations: o Banking: Wax tabletsin house of CaecilliusIucundus which showed record of businesstransactions. o Architects: named on inscriptions on theatres at Pompeii,for example Marcus Artorius Primus. o Other occupationsincluded door‐keeper, engraver,farmer, goldsmith, blacksmith,mason,musician, porter,sign‐writer,surgeon,teacher and wagon driver.
2.1.16 Socialstructure:men, women,freedmen,slaves  Men: o Senatorial Elite: Romans who visited Pompeii andHerculaenumasthey had villas here. Cicero the orator had a villa at Pompeii whilst Caesar’sfather‐in‐ law Lucius Calpurnius Piso and proconsul MarcusNonius Balbus had villa’sin Herculaneum. o Local Elite:these were wealthy landowners and traders who dominated local government. o Themiddle class: Thisincluded all freebornmalesthat were artisans, shopkeepers and businessman. Money was earned also by libertinithat stayed in the shops oftheir owners. An example isthe slaves oftheGarum saucemerchant AulusUmbricius Scaurus.
2.1.17  Women o Social Status of women in the family [Cantarella and Jacobelli]  Women could notmarry unlessthey had the consent oftheirfather ‘paterfamilias’  Upon theirfather’s death, daughters could inherittheirshare ofthe estate of equalterms with sonsupper class women became rich and psychologically and socially emancipated.  Women could not dispose oftheir property. o Social Status of women in society [Cantarella and Jacobelli]:  Women became rich due to inheriting property fromtheirfamily membersthat weremale and died in wars. E.g.Julia Felix  Often women were sold asslavesto earn somemoney and avoid dowries. (2012) All Rights Reserved 7 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au  Some received public honoursfortheirlife like the tomb of Mamia.  In regard to education, 20% could read/write. For example the poet Sappho.  Women were not confined to their houses o Marriage [Cantarella and Jacobelli]:  Though a lifetime unionmany ended in divorce with up to three sub
2.1.18  Freedmen ‘libertini’ o These were slaves who have beenmanumitted. o Manymaintained a connection to their original owners which was due to a patron‐clientrelationship. E.g.Umbricius Abascantus. o Many took the names oftheirmasters,for exampleUmbricious Abascantus. o Whilstthey could not become senators,many became quite wealthy. The Vettii brothers have a luxurious house. Also Pompeiian wax tablets describe that PoppaeaNote had slaves, being once a slave herself.
2.1.19 Slaves o Bradley statesthatslavesthrough capture and auction or as an offspring of a slavemother belonged to theirmasters. o Cameron saysthat 40% ofthe population wasslaves. o Worked in theirmasters businesses,see freedmen o Some had to have been paid otherwise they would not be able to buy their freedom. The vastminority however could not afford to do this. o Jobsincluded child carers,tutors, wet‐nurses and administration dutiesif they were educated.
2.1.20 Local political life  Self‐administeringmunicipalitiesmuch likemodern local governments.  Whilst Pompeii was generally a self‐governing town,they were subjectto imperial decree by Rome. This wasthe case whenNero banned gladiator contestsin 59ADfor 10 years.  Onlymale citizens could vote (2012) All Rights Reserved 8 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au  Women could not hold any position in political office.  People in positions of power often had great wealth.  The wealthy and powerful used their position to develop strong patron‐client relationships with citizensto gain for both, political and economic power. o PopidiusNatalis, client, with the worshippers ofIsis, propose Cuspius Ponsa as aedile.  Whilstmuch graffiti isfound in regard to potential candidatesfor office, we do not know forsure whether certain candidates were successful.[James Franklin]  Apartfromthe status of dictator,the Comitia voted annually on the following positions: o Aediles:these were th
2.1.21 Leisure Activities o The Emperor Claudius designated 159 days yearly for holidays o Latin word forleisure is‘otium’ o Activitiesincluded gambling, dining, partying.Others enjoyedGreek/Latin literature, exercising in the palaestra,swimming pools. Also public baths, theatres and gladiator contests.
2.1.22 Food o 18Dolia found in the Villa Regina for holding wine. o Generalfood found includes, bread thatis carbonised, oil, wine, cheese, nuts,figs,seafood, grapes, barley, honey, eggs and fruit. o Biselsaysthattheir diets were lacking in redmeat perhaps due to the amount ofseafood they would have consumed. Through dental work on excavated bodies, people lacked sugarin their diet which kepttheirteeth healthy. They were well nourished people despite their deficiency inmeat. o Pliny the Eldertells us ofGarumsaucemade fromfish gutsthat was dominated by AulusUmbricious Scaurus. Thisis evidentthroughmosaics found in his house.
2.1.23  Dining o Fromthe number ofthermopolia found in Pompeii andHerculaneum, itis clearthat Vesuvian citizens often ate out. Thisis also supported by the lack of culina in houses. o Hotfood provided by thermopolia o People ate by standing up due to limited seating o They ate 3meals a day – breakfast‘ientaculum’, lunch ‘prandium’ and dinner‘cena’ o Cena wasthe biggestmeal and was eaten overthree courses – i.e. was a banquet. o Banqueting was perhapsintroduced by the Etruscansthatshowed Pompeiian’s how to enjoy food and drink. o Sweets weremade forthemore extravagant banquetslike the Satyricon by Petronius.
2.1.24 Clothing o Most clothing items have perished through there are pieces offabric,shoe leather and pinsfound. o Clothes denoted rank and status o The Roman toga on the statue ofNonius Balbus was worn on formal occasions. o Cuirass worn byHolconius Rufussignifies he was amilitary tribune. o Men of high rank in the army would wear a loose tunic down to the knee and a belt. They had parallel purple stripes on front and back.  Widerstripe ‘latic lavius’for higherranks  Narrow stripe ‘angusticlavius’forlowerranks. o Woman wore stola, depicted byNonius Balbus’mother. They also wore woollen head bands‘vittae’ and palla to view head when going out. symbolised chastity and honesty
2.1.25  Health o Itis easy to determine the age ofinfants due to theirtooth development o The bonesshow that 26‐30 years and 40‐50 years are the common age groupsin the towns which is nottypical of ancient populations which tend to havemore infants and young adults. o Based on ancient writers and their own data,the Biselsisters attribute the low birth rates with successful contraception and abortion techniques:  Soranusremarksthatthe cervix was clogged before intercourse with woollen spongestreated with honey to preventseminal penetration.  Others endured strenuous exercises and laxatives. o Dental health betterthan today perhaps due to lesssugarin diet,seafood that provided fluorine and the abrasive nature offoods consumed however only a few hundred skeletons have been analysed. SEE 3.2 (2012) All Rights Reserved 10 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au o Slight periodontal disease amongst older population. o Lack ofredmeatmeant 1/3 of population had anaemia,though thisis
2.1.26  Baths o Those with time visited the bathsregularly tomeetfriends, political allies and business associates. o Hot baths‘thermae’ developed here. o Establishmentsinclude the Stabian, Forum, Central and Sarno baths. For Herculaneum,the Surburban and Central baths overlooked the sea. o Men were designated 4 days whilst women 3 days ofthe week to go to the baths.Genders did notmix. o Julia Felix had her own private bathsfor “elegant and respectable people” o Food and prostitutes broughtfor pleasure. o Three types of baths:the caladarium(hotroom),the trepidarium(warm room) and the fridgedarium(coolroom). o There was a central changing room. o A strigil was used to cleanse skin by scraping dirt off. o Oils were applied andmassages were given. o The bathsfunctioned by a hypocaustwhere hot airfromunderground heated furnaces would circulate in the bathing area.  Water Supply o Aqueductsran through Pompeii andHerculaneum. E.g. Aqua Augustus o Water entered a watertower‘castellumaquae’ and flo
2.1.27 Public buildings – basilica,temples,fora,theatres, palaestra , amphitheatres.  The Curia o Town Council assembled here assembled of 80‐100 influentialmen over 25. o Rectangular hall with an apse in the end wall. o As citizens could voice their complaints, heavy gates were used to control crowds.  Tabularium: o Opposite the curia,this was where allthe government business was recorded and filed, including tax records.  The Basilica o Consisted oflaw courts and a place where contracts were signed o There were two floors.© (2012) All Rights Reserved 11 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au o Had a raised tribunal (platform) where the duumvir presided asjudges. o Consisted of Corinthian and Ionic columns  Temples o Temple ofJupiter:  There ismore fluting in the columnsthatinGreek Temples.  In the centre of each ofthe drumsthatis part of columnsis a recess and pin to hold themin place. o Temple ofthe Capitoline Triads:  Has Corinthian Capitals  Fluted columns  Dedica
2.1.28 Private buildings – villa, houses,shops  Villas: 100 have been found acrossthe Sarno Plain. o Otium:  Built purely forleisure  Main features: Rooms built on differentlevels with terraces, a subterranean portico, expansive gardens, groves and grottoes, water displays,thermal baths, largerswimming pools.  EVIDENCE: The Villa ofthe Papyri.  245 x 137metres  Consisted of peristyle surrounded by 36 columns, a continuous portico, and grand gardens with waterfeatures. Also had its own bath.  87 statues of bronze ormarble feature animals, gods, athletes.  1800 papyrusrollsfeaturing Philodemusthe poet/philosopher. o Villa Rusticae:  Villas build on land for agricultural and pastoral production like vineyards  ‘Pars urbana’were the residential quartersforthe ownerto stay when he visited.Had heated bath.  Most ofthese villas are partially excavated.© (2012) All Rights Reserved 13 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au  EVIDENCE: The Villa Regina. Also the Villa of Pisan
2.1.29 The Influence ofGreek and Egyptian cultures: art, architecture,religion  The Romans were nevermerely imitators and rather assimilated various cultures, techniques and ideasto produce something vibrant and unique.  Art o Influenced byGreek, Etruscan, Italian and Egyptian works. o Greek: Mosaic ofthe battle of Alexander andDarius atIssusin theHouse of the Faun. o Egyptian: Fresco found in theHouse ofthe Faun representsflora and fauna found along theNile River. o In considering artssuch as poetry and philosophy,the Villa ofthe Papyri has many papyrusscrolls written inGreek. o Greek poetry found with linesfromHomer.  Architecture: o Columns:  Doric:House ofthe Tragic Poet  Ionic: Around the Temple of Apollo,  Corinthian: Peristyle courtyardsin private homes of Pompeii, Temple of Fortuna Augusta. o The triangularforumhad the shape oftheGreek Acropolis. o There is a SamniteHouse atHerculaneum.  Religion o The people of Pompeii andHerculaneumwere polytheistic. o The Capitoline Triad wa
2.1.30 Religion:temples, household gods,foreign cults,tombs.  Generalstuff on religion: o Religion bonded people to theGods o It was also ameans of uniting the entire community  Temples – Referto 2.3.6  StateGods: o Jupiter – protector ofthe state o Juno – Protector of women o Minerva – patroness of craftsmen. o Apollo –God of oracles and light o Venus –God oflove and patron goddess of Pompeii. Also forsailors. o Collectively,JupiterJuno and Minerva were worshipped asthe Capitoline Triad in the Temple ofJupiter.© (2012) All Rights Reserved 15 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au  HouseholdGods: o Were worshipped in households are theirmain role wasto protectit o The ‘lararium’ wasthe household shrine where the Lares were worshipped. A niche was dug outto place statues of householdsGods here. TheHouse of the Vettii had a well preserved lararium. o Sometimesfrescoes were substitutesforstatues ofGods. o The statues were dressed in country style asthey were originally protect
3 Investigating, Reconstructing and Preserving the Past
3.1 Changingmethods and contributions of nineteenth and twentieth century archaeologiststo our understanding of Pompeii andHerculaneum
3.1.1 Overtime, a variety of archaeologistshave investigated Pompeii andHerculaneum, some driven by nationalismwhilst others by external influences and putting self interests before the site’s welfare that hasleftthe townsin a fragile state,requiring prompt attention in regard to preservation and conservation.Nevertheless,they have all contributed to ourimproved understanding of Pompeii andHerculaneum.  Priorto 1860, Bourbon rulerstunnelled through the sitesin search oftreasure to adorn their houses. They had no respectforthe ancient culture and destroyed thousands of artefacts and buildings, leaving the sitesin a fragile state.  Fiorelli, driven by nationalism, brought beneficiary changesto the towns. o For Pompeii, he developed a scientific numbering systemto identify buildings by region, insulae and building numberto remove ambiguities of previous namesthatrelied on the contents of buildingslike theHouse ofthe Faun o Published findingsthatincreased global awareness. o Conductedmeticulou
3.1.2 New research and technologies help usthe better understand Pompeii and Herculaneumas we canmore easily decipher papyri as well asstudy skeletal and plantremains. It also allows us a glimpse ofthe pastthatmight otherwise be difficult to appreciate.  Digitalmulti‐spectral imaging in collaboration with other non‐destructive techniques is being used in the Philodemus Project atthe Villa ofthe Papyri. Carbonised papyri that have been crushed and fused together by volcanicmaterial can allow archaeologiststo not damage the fragile papyri and gauge philosophical worksthat influenced Rome’s culture.  CT scans have been used on the lady ofOplontis, a castmade fromepoxy resin. Through this advancement, Estelle Lazer has been able to determine the woman was in her 30’s and has an irregular healing fracture.© (2012) All Rights Reserved 18 of 20 Formore info, go to www.hscintheholidays.com.au  Architectonicalsurveys allow 3Dlaserreconstructionsthat have been taking placed in the Fori Civili of Po
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