220.127.116.11.1 They are detached from the main clause. They are normally
detached NP which stand outside the clause and are called
ABSOLUTE THEMES: "The financial crisis (AT), we are all aware
that some measures have to be taken". It does not have any
grammatical relation with the second part of the message.
18.104.22.168.1.1 DISLOCATIONS: a dislocated element is a detached element
which is a constituent of the clause, frequently the subject.
At the begining of the clause is a left-dislocation, at the end
of the clause is a right-dislocation.
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 "That scream (left-dislocation), where did it
come from?" "That house (left-dislocation)
that is the one I've always dreamed of."
126.96.36.199.1.1.2 "Is it yours, that jacket?" (right-dislocated theme)
"It's fantastic, this book." (right-dislocated theme)"
188.8.131.52.1.1.3 "Your friend (Absolute theme), the car
outside her house (left-dislocated
theme), they have stolen it".
184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11.3. Thematic clauses: when 2 or more clauses are joined together
in a complex clause, the clause that is placed first is said to be thematic.
This applies for cases of coordination and subordination. Examples:
18.104.22.168.1 Coordination: "Tommy hit his sister (theme)
and she burst into tears (rheme)".
22.214.171.124.2 Subordination: "When I saw her (theme) I
realized she had been crying (rheme)".
126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52.4. Theme, subject and topic: Theme is a different category from syntactic
subject and from topic what the text is about). They tend to coincide in one
wording but sometimes they do not. Examples:
184.108.40.206.1 The new president has been strongly criticized.
"The new president" is subject, theme and topic.
220.127.116.11.2 In Spain, the people criticized the new president
for his foreign policy. "In Spain" = Theme; "the
people" = Subject; "new president" = Topic.
18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.5. Marked and Unmarked Themes
126.96.36.199.1 MARKED Theme: when the theme does not coincide
with the expected first constituent of each structure.
188.8.131.52.1.1 Never (Marked theme) will Sally pass that exam (rheme). (The
expected 1st constituent of a declarative clause is the subject).
// The question (Marked theme) he popped (rheme).
184.108.40.206.2 UNMARKED Theme: when the theme
co-exists with such a constituent.
220.127.116.11.2.1 Sally (Unmarked Theme) will never pass that exam (rheme).
// He (Unmarked Theme) popped the question (rheme).
18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.6. Thematization/Staging: They refer the process which has to do with the
linear organization of sentences and text. Sentence word order is vital for the
organizacion of the information. The speaker/writer always chooses a beginning point
which will influence the interpretation of the text which follows it.
126.96.36.199 The thematic structure of a clause contains 2 elements:
THEME (the point of departure) and RHEME (the rest of
the message): Peter (theme) doesn't like the car (rheme).
188.8.131.52.1 TOPICAL THEME: A theme that contains an
ideational element which functions as subject,
object, complement or circumstantial adjunct.
184.108.40.206.1.1 The ideational function represents our experience
of the world, so it is also an EXPERIENTIAL THEME.
220.127.116.11.1.1.1 1. SUBJECT: "Tom" is coming for dinner.
18.104.22.168.1.1.2 2. OBJECT: "No!" I said.
22.214.171.124.1.1.3 3. CIRCUMSTANTIAL ADJUNCT: "This morning at the
cafeteria" we had a lot of fun (Time and place adjuncts).
126.96.36.199.1.1.4 4. COMPLEMENT: "A terrible fiasco" it was (subject comp.) /
"General Director" he was appointed (object comp.)
188.8.131.52.1.1.5 5. VERB: "Coming up" is the latest news (thematized verb).
184.108.40.206.2 NON-EXPERIENTIAL THEMES:
220.127.116.11.2.1 a) INTERPERSONAL THEMES:
18.104.22.168.2.1.1 1. CONTINUATIVE THEMES: markers of
attention such as "well, oh, please, hey".
22.214.171.124.2.1.2 2. ADJUNCTS OF STANCE: such as
"apparently, surely, certainly".
126.96.36.199.2.1.3 3. VOCATIVES AND APPELATIVES: such as
"Dad! Mr. Wilson! Ladies and gentlemen!"
188.8.131.52.2.2 b) TEXTUAL THEMES:
184.108.40.206.2.2.1 CONNECTIVE ADJUNCTS / DISCOURSE MARKERS
suchs as "anyway, however, first, finally" which
connect a clause to the previous part of the text.
1.1.2 220.127.116.11. Information Structure: Given vs. New
18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124.1. Marked and Unmarked Focus
126.96.36.199.1 188.8.131.52.1.1. But how do we identify the focus? Speakers divide
their messages into information units (segments of
information). They syllable which contains the intonation
nucleus of the unit constitutes the focus of information.
184.108.40.206.2 220.127.116.11.1.2. Cleft Constructions: Clefting is a process which takes place
when speakers reorganize the content of a single clause into 2 related
parts or units in order to place te focus on a new element.
18.104.22.168.2.1 It-cleft: "It's a HAMBURGER that I want" (New + Given)
22.214.171.124.2.2 Wh-cleft: "What I want is a HAMBURGER" (Given + New)
126.96.36.199.3 Unmarked Focus: the principle of END-FOCUS establishes that the
unmarked distribution starts with the given and progresses towards
the new. It allows us to say that the unmarked option for the focus is
to fall on the last lexical item of the clause. Example: It sounds ODD. /
She is SHY. / You will see me in the FUTURE.
188.8.131.52.4 Marked Focus: when the focus does not fall on
the last lexical item. Example: It DOES sound
odd. / She IS shy. / You WILL see me in the
184.108.40.206 Information is a process of interaction between what is
already known or predictable and what is new or
unpredictable. The information unit is a structure made up
of 2 functions: The NEW and the GIVEN information. Given
information precedes the new and the new is always
marked by tonic prominence called INFORMATION FOCUS.
1.1.3 Theory of linguistic analysis which refers to an analysis
of utterances or texts in terms of the information they
obtain. The role of each part of a utterance is evaluated
for its semantic contribution to the whole.
220.127.116.11 COMMUNICATIVE DYNAMISM: a
notion that attempts to rate the
different level of contribution within
a structure, in particular those
related to the THEME and the RHEME.
18.104.22.168.1 Firbas: Communicative Dynamism is
the extent to which a linguistic
element contributes to the further
development of the communication.
22.214.171.124.1.1 When speakers say something, they have a
communicative purpose and the elements of
the language contribute to that purpose.
1.1.4 Functional sentence perspective provides an
explanation for word order. There are 4 factores
that determine communicative dynamism:
126.96.36.199 1) LINEAR MODIFICATION
188.8.131.52 2) CONTEXTUAL FACTOR: Context-dependent vs.
184.108.40.206 3) THE SEMANTIC FACTOR: it deals
with the dynamic functions.
220.127.116.11.1 THEME: the part of a sentence which has the
lowest degree of communicative dynamism.
18.104.22.168.2 RHEME: the part of the sentence which has the
highest degree of communicative dynamism.
22.214.171.124 4) PROSODIC PROMINENCE: only studied in spoken
language as it focuses on aspects such as intonation.
1.2 One of the great linguistic paradigms of the 20th
century: an alternative to Transformational
Grammar's view of language, considered too abstract.
1.3 Focus: language as social interaction and the rules which
govern such interaction. It studies the linguistic structures
of language in relation to the context in which they occur.
1.4 Most important aspect: the organization of information.
1.4.1 FUNTIONAL SENTENCE PERSPECTIVE: studies
the distribution of information in more or less
dynamic elements called THEME and RHEME.
2 8.2. Information Structure and Thematic Structure (Given + New, and Theme
+ Rheme): Information structure and Thematic structure are closely related
from the semantic point of view because the speaker will choose the theme
from within what is given and will locate the new within the rheme.
2.1 However, neither given and theme nor new and rheme are the same. THEME/RHEME are
speaker-oriented, and GIVEN/NEW are listener-oriented. (The speaker can use thematic and
information structures to produce a variety of RHETORICAL EFFECTS).
3 8.3. Some Considerations related to Halliday's Information Structure Analysis: Some authors note the
Hallday focuses on the sole function of pitch prominence to mark the focus of new information, but
this has other discourse/pragmatic functions such as marking the beginning of a speaker's turn or the
beginning of a new topic.
3.1 BUT information structure is not only realized by the phonological
system, but also the syntactic and textual systems.