B2.2 Tissues, Organs And Organ Systems

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GCSE Biology (B2) Mind Map on B2.2 Tissues, Organs And Organ Systems, created by killthemoment on 08/03/2014.

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B2.2 Tissues, Organs And Organ Systems
1 B2.2.1 Animal Organs
1.1 The cells of multicellular organisms may differentiate and become adapted for specific functions. Tissues are aggregations of similar cells; organs are aggregations of tissues performing specific physiological functions. Organs are organised into organ systems, which work together to form organisms.
1.1.1 Large multicellular organisms develop systems for exchanging materials. During the development of a multicellular organism, cells differentiate so that they can perform different functions. A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function. Examples of tissues include: muscular tissue, which can contract to bring about movement; glandular tissue, which can produce substances such as enzymes and hormones; epithelial tissue, which covers some parts of the body. Organs are made of tissues. One organ may contain several tissues. The stomach is an organ that contains: muscular tissue, to churn the contents; glandular tissue, to produce digestive juices; epithelial tissue, to cover the outside and the inside of the stomach. Organ systems are groups of organs that perform a particular function. The digestive system is one example of a system in which humans and other mammals exchange substances with the environment. The digestive system includes: glands, such as the pancreas and salivary glands, which produce digestive juices; the stomach and small intestine, where digestion occurs; the liver, which produces bile; the small intestine, where the absorption of soluble food occurs; the large intestine, where water is absorbed from the undigested food, producing faeces.
2 B2.2.2 Plant Organs
2.1 Plant organs include stems, roots and leaves.
2.1.1 Examples of plant tissues include: epidermal tissues, which cover the plant; mesophyll, which carries out photosynthesis; xylem and phloem, which transport substances around the plant. Leaves are adapted to absorbing sunlight for photosynthesis: chlorophyll, to absorb sunlight; large surface area, to absorb more light; stomata, to let carbon dioxide diffuse into the leaf; thin, short distance for carbon dioxide to diffuse into leaf cells; network of veins, to support the leaf and transport water and carbohydrates. The internal structure of a leaf is adapted to allow efficient photosynthesis: thin, waxy cuticle made of wax, to protect the leaf without blocking out light; thin, transparent epidermis, to allow more light to reach the palisade cells; layer of palisade cells on the top surface, to absorb light; many chloroplasts in the palisade cells, to increase absorption of light; spongy mesophyll inside the leaf, air spaces allow carbon dioxide to diffuse through the leaf, and increase the surface area.
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