Diet and food production

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Biology (F212) Mind Map on Diet and food production, created by Nikita96 on 05/28/2013.

Created by Nikita96 over 6 years ago
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Diet and food production
1 Balanced diet
1.1 Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water and fibre
1.2 Malnutrition is from not getting the right amount of each nutrient.
1.2.1 Not having enough food
1.2.2 Unbalanced diet
1.2.3 Not being able to absorb the nutrients.
1.3 Obesity
1.3.1 Being 20% over the recommened body weight
1.3.2 Too much sugary or fatty food and too little exercise. Can cause diabetes, arthritis, high blood pressure, CHD and cancer
1.4 A diet high in saturated fats raise blood cholesterol level. Increase fatty deposits in the arteries which cause atherosclerosis. A diet high in salt can cause high blood presure.
1.5 HDL are mainly protein. Transports cholesterol from body tissue to the liver. Functioned to reduce blood cholesterol. LDL are mainly lipid. Transports cholesterol from liver to the tissues. Functioned to increase cholesterol levels
1.5.1 Saturated fats increase LDL's. Unsaturated increases HDL's
2 Food production
2.1 Plants
2.1.1 Humans depend on plants for food as they are the start of the food chain. For direct consumption or feed to animals
2.2 Fertilisers and pestisides
2.2.1 Fertilisers are chemicals that increase crop yields by providing (nitrate, phosphate, potassium) that plants need to grow. They replace the minerals lost from previous crops
2.2.2 Pesticides are chemicals that increase crop yield by killing pests that feed on crops. Fewer plants are destroyed. Can be specific to an organism
2.3 Antibiotics
2.3.1 Given to animals to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Help treat or prevent disease. Increases food production, growth and size.
2.4 Selective breeding
2.4.1 Selecting plants or animals with good characteristics that will increase yield and breed them. Select offspring with the characteristics and breed. Continue over generations so characteristics exaggerate
3 Microorganisms
3.1 Prevent food spoilage
3.1.1 Salting and sugaring inhibits that ability for microorganisms to absorb water.
3.1.2 Freezing slow the growth of microorganisms down, inhibits their growth
3.1.3 Pickling reduces enzyme activity so they can't function
3.1.4 Pasteurising and irradiation kills any microorganisms present
3.2 Pro/Con
3.2.1 Pros: Food can be produced quickly. Grown on inexpensive materials. Grow anywhere at anytime. Lasts longer Cons: High risk of food contamination. Small changes can kill the microorganisms. Doesn't taste like traditional protein
3.3 Used to make food
3.3.1 Bread, wine, cheese, yoghurt

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