First Civil War (1642 - 1646)

stacie.carter
Mind Map by stacie.carter, updated more than 1 year ago
stacie.carter
Created by stacie.carter almost 7 years ago
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(History) Mind Map on First Civil War (1642 - 1646), created by stacie.carter on 05/30/2013.
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First Civil War (1642 - 1646)
1 Resources of Two Sides in 1642
1.1 Factors which influence the outcome of wars
1.1.1 leadership
1.1.2 levels of resources & supplies (weapons, food)
1.1.3 payment of wages
1.1.4 size of army, soldiers quantity, experience, training
1.1.5 tactics & strategy
1.1.6 level of civilian support
1.1.7 propaganda
1.1.8 possession of key geographical areas
1.1.9 money & collection of taxes
1.2 Differences between the Sides
1.2.1 both sides = strengths & weakness - outcome not inevitable
1.2.2 Royalist strengths
1.2.2.1 immediate money
1.2.2.2 strong cavalry
1.2.2.3 experienced Prince Rupert (leader)
1.2.3 Royalist weaknesses
1.2.3.1 controlled poor areas of country
1.2.3.2 shortage of weapons more serious for them
1.2.4 Parliamentary strengths
1.2.4.1 controlled London & ports (collect customs duties)
1.2.4.2 controlled navy (prevent help from abroad)
1.2.5 Parliamentary weaknesses
1.2.5.1 immediate shortage of money - take time to improve situation
1.2.6 C needed quick war - over before money run out (less taxes than P)
1.2.7 P - better long-tern financial position = longer war (easier to collect taxes & from richer areas)
2 Early Stages of the War
2.1 Battle of Edgehill, 23rd Oct 1642
2.1.1 battle = draw (both sides claimed win)
2.1.2 1500 men died - shock of English killing English = negotiations reopened
2.1.3 after battle, C set up headquarters in Oxford
2.1.4 peace talks arranged but fighting intensified - both sides gain stronger position
2.2 'Battle' of Turnham Green, 13th Nov 1642
2.2.1 Prince R & 10,000 troops face Earl of Essex &20,000 Londoners = R retreated
2.2.2 revealed how important London was - large no. soldiers raised quickly
2.2.3 marked end of fighting season - travelling in winter = difficult
2.2.4 time of resting, planning & conducting peace talks
2.3 Winter of 1642-1643
2.3.1 peace talks opened in Oxford in Dec; abandoned April
2.3.2 P's demands = abolition of bishops, P approval of ministers, control of army & punishment of "evil councillors"
2.3.3 neither side had won so neither had motive for compromise
2.3.4 military preparations
2.3.4.1 Royalist Triple Advance = plan fro C main armies (N. S-W & C) to converge on London & force P surrender
2.3.4.2 P established Eastern Association (merged 5 armies) under Earl of Manchester: each army agreed to help if others attacked - attempt to overcome localism
2.3.4.3 Feb 1643; P introduced Weekly Assessment where taxes collected by County Committees (gentry) - later made monthly due to lack of resources
3 Royalist Successes
3.1 Early Royalist Successes
3.1.1 N. army captured Yorkshire & Lincolnshire, spring 1643 - E. Anglia next = provided food for P
3.1.2 capturing enemy land = one side gained & other lost tax, recruits, weapons & food
3.1.3 W. army captures Devon, Somerset & Dorset; 26th July = Bristol (2nd biggest port) captured
3.2 Parliament's Reaction
3.2.1 arguments between
3.2.1.1 Peace Party: moderates - wanted satisfactory negotiated peace (inc. Earl of Essex & Manchester - controlled army)
3.2.1.2 War Party: radicals - wanted military defeat of enemy (inc. Cromwell)
3.2.2 War P blamed Peace P for P failures
3.2.3 Pym persuaded MPs to pass financial measures
3.2.3.1 sequestrations of Royalist land
3.2.3.2 forced loan
3.2.3.3 excise (duty on alcohol & tobacco) = v. effective but unpopular esp. as many in lower classes drank beer rather than water
3.3 Royalist Failures
3.3.1 by late summer 1643 R armies in retreat
3.3.2 N. army worried about P stronghold @ Hull
3.3.3 W. army worried about Plymouth
3.3.4 C. army worried about Gloucester
3.3.5 example how localism held R back
3.3.6 these P strongholds = all ports - supplied by navy, which controlled by P
3.4 Alliances, Sept 1643
3.4.1 The Solemn League and Convent, 7th Sept 1643
3.4.1.1 P allied with the Scots
3.4.1.2 Scots sent army of 20,000 men
3.4.1.3 Scots wanted Presbyterian church in Eng - but English Presbyterian MPs wanted own church
3.4.1.4 Scot military expenses to be paid by Eng after war
3.4.2 The Cessation, 14th Sept 1643
3.4.2.1 C signed secret agreement with Irish rebels - secrecy led to rumours
3.4.2.2 Irish Rebellion to be suspended for 1yr
3.4.2.3 Irish rebels granted £30,000 to C - preferred C with Catholic sympathies
3.4.2.4 English troops in Ireland could return home
3.5 Death of Pym, Dec 1643
3.5.1 died of cancer
3.5.2 motives = protect traditional constitution & Protestant church - willing to use increasingly radical methods
3.5.3 Achievements = reforms of 1641, kept MPs united in early stages, laid foundations for P victory
3.5.4 Failures = radical methods lost support in 1641-2, country being torn apart by 1643
3.6 both sides short of money throughout = resorted to: - looting - seizure of goods - free quarter
3.7 by late summer 1643 - apparent war not be quick - P began negotiating with Scots
4 The Year the Royalists Lost the War
4.1 Events, Jan - July 1644
4.1.1 Jan: 20,000 strong Scot army invaded N. Eng - threatened C N. army & R troops from Ireland captured in Cheshire
4.1.2 April: C's N. army besieged @ York by 3 armies ( Scot, P's Yorkshire & Eastern Association)
4.1.3 June: Prince R sent to relieve siege with 14,000 men
4.2 Battle of Marston Moor, 2nd July 1644
4.2.1 turning point?
4.2.2 P's forces ,arched to stop Prince R: assembled @ Marston Moor
4.2.3 Prince R got past them & rescued R - determined to fight P & told tired, starving soldiers it was C's orders
4.2.4 18,000 R vs 23,000 P
4.2.5 Cromwell's' cavalry charged, taking R by surprise - with help from Scots = 1st breakthrough & Rs fled
4.2.6 on other side: R seemed to be winning but couldn't control men - went for baggage train = surrounded and fought to death (finished @ 9:30pm)
4.2.7 Cromwell believed victory = God on their side
4.3 Consequences of Battle
4.3.1 1000 R dead, 15000 captured, N. army destroyed
4.3.2 Rupert escaped with several 100 soldiers
4.3.3 P lost 300 soldiers
4.3.4 2 weeks later: York surrendered to P who now took over N Eng - C lost lot of resources
4.3.5 brought victory in reach for P
4.3.6 Cromwell = national figure for command of cavalry
4.3.7 first decisive victory
4.3.8 P thought could quickly win war now
4.4 BUT
4.4.1 P did not follow up victory: Scot returned to border & no other part in war (fighting in Scot), Cromwell ordered back to E. Anglia, Fairfax stayed in York
4.4.2 localism prevented capitalising gains
4.4.3 despite C losses & lack of resources: P lost big battle in Cornwall (Sept), P failed to defeat small R army @ Newbury (Oct), by end of 1644looked like neither could win quickly, many MPs angry & blamed Earl of Essex & Manchester
4.4.4 War Party wanted new leaders & national army to avoid localism
4.4.5 @ Council of War meeting: quarrel between Cromwell & Manchester
4.4.6 national army = too radical for some
4.4.7 peace talks opened in winter - the Uxbridge negotiations
4.4.8 Jan 1645: Laud put on trial = attempt to reunite MPs
5 How the War Ended
5.1 Uxbridge Negotiations, Jan - Feb 1645
5.1.1 peace talks failed & Peace party suffered
5.1.2 Parliament's terms
5.1.2.1 abolition of bishops
5.1.2.2 P approval of ministers
5.1.2.3 P control of army
5.1.2.4 punishment of 57 Royalists
5.1.3 King's attitude
5.1.3.1 want Anglican church
5.1.3.2 protect royal prerogative
5.1.3.3 valued supporters loyalty
5.2 New Model Army, Feb 1645
5.2.1 created by ordinance
5.2.2 national army of 22,000 men centrally controlled & paid
5.2.3 free from localism = could be sent anywhere in country
5.2.4 commander = Fairfax with Cromwell as cavalry commander
5.3 Self-Denying Ordinance, April 1645
5.3.1 all MPs with military commands had to resign them in 40days: Essex & Manchester resigned, Cromwell reappointed
5.4 Battle of Naseby, June 1645
5.4.1 NMA of 14,000 men
5.4.2 R army of 7500 men
5.4.3 Cromwell's repeated charges, discipline of NMA & advantage of numbers = R defeated
5.4.4 1000 R killed, 5,000 captured
5.4.5 R cannon, baggage train & writing carriage (with correspondence with Irish) captured
5.4.6 200 P's killed
5.4.7 R C. army detroyed
5.4.8 victory followed up: Battle of Longport, Somerset in July 1645 (S-W army destroyed)
5.4.9 11th Sept: Bristol recaptured, Rupert fled abroad
5.5 End of Civil War, Sept 1645 - May 1646
5.5.1 Sept 1645: Scot Royalists defeated
5.5.2 Clubmen Movement: southern county farmers armed themselves to stop armies entering (in Dorset, supported by 20,000)
5.5.3 April1646: Charles left Oxford in disguise
5.5.4 5th May: Charles surrendered to Scot army @ Newark, Nottinghamshire
5.5.5 Enter text here
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