Sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour

harry_bygraves
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Psychology (Relationships) Mind Map on Sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour, created by harry_bygraves on 06/05/2013.

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harry_bygraves
Created by harry_bygraves over 6 years ago
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Sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour
1 There are four main ways that we can think about sexual selection; 1. How does intrasexual selection influence mate choice? 2. How does intersexual selection influence mate choice? 3. Who do humans choose to sleep with in the short term? 4. Who do humans choose to mate with in the long term?
2 Intrasexual selection; Intra means within, and intra sexual selection is the term for competition between males to father children. There are different ways that males can compete and in humans these are; 1. Being physically fitter/Stronger 2. Having faster and more numerous sperm than other males
2.1 If several males sleep with the same female the male who has the most numerous and fastest sperm will probably be the person to father the child. This means that if human males have competed over females in the evolutionary past we would expect human males to be the larger of the two genders and to produce large numbers of fast sperm
3 Intersexual selection; males and females look for certain characteristics in their chosen partners. This is thought to be due to evolutionary pressure and also some social pressure. Males look for a female who is capable of giving him as many children as possible. So youth and health are the biggest factors in sexual selection. Females are looking for a person who has enough resources to make sure her offspring and her will be taken care of.
4 Short term sexual selection
4.1 Males; men have a gretaer desire for short-term mating. They can father more children without being burdened with raising them
4.2 Females; Parental investment theory states that it is risker for women to have one night stands and researchers find that fewer women are willing to engage in short-term mating practices compared to men.
5 Long-term sexual selection BUSS (2003);
5.1 Found that males were more choosey when selecting a partner for long-term relationship. They were mainly looking for usefulness and fertility
5.2 Females were interested in males who were able to invest in her and her children, able to offer protection, parenting skills and had a personality compatible for LT relationship
6 Mate choice and Mentstrual cycle; females at low fertility times of the cyle prefer males with feminie type faces. When they are at high fertile points in the cycle they prefer masculine faces
7 Simmons et al (2003) found that males produce a lot of sperm and also have large tstes for body size. Futher support for the competition between males through high levels of cuckoldry found in humans 10%
8 Buss (1993) believes jealousy evolved to hel human males prevent themselves from being lead into cuckolding another mans baby. The male would become aggressive making it less likely that the female would cheat on him becuase the consequences would be high and not worth the risk
9 Buss (1989) studied over 10,000 people in 37 different cultures found on average males look for fertility, females look for resources
10 Buss (1989) found both genders in all cultures were looking for someone intelligent, kind, dependable
11 Buss and Schmidt (1993) (Males) found men find women more attractive before sex. After he finds it easier to leave as she is not attractive
12 Clarke and Hatfield (1989) (Females) got an attractive male and female to ask ine of the three Q to uni students; 1. Would you go on a date with me (50% said yes both M+F), 2. Would you go back to my appartment ( 6% F and 69% M), 3. Would you have sex with me (0% F and 75% of M)
13 The importance of sexual fertility; Miller et al (2007) found strippers US earn twice as much at most fertile times. Men seem to find most fertile women more attractive
14 A lot of research uses students so those relationships do not reflect all adult relationship

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