*Charles Booth & Seebohm Rowntree
*Improve National Efficiency, the Boer showed that a lot of the population were malnourished
*America and Germany beating them in industrialization
*For the vote in the elections, they needed support from the working class.
1.2 Were they effective?
NO- They were not a welfare state until after WWII, NHS not set up until 1948, You still had to pay for healthcare, Poor law and workhouses not abolished until 1928, Roll of Lloyd George slightly exaggerated, payments did not last long 16 weeks normally and sometimes 26.
YES- Set the standards, although little people were grateful, free medical treatment if you had TB, They lifted the shadows of the workhouses as Lloyd George said, Social Service state, Healthier and educated workforce, ensured safety of children, set up responsibility of the state no more 'Lassez-Faire'.
1.3 What were they?
*1906- Schools Meal act- Labour back bencher, by 1914 provided 150,000 free school meals everyday.
1907- Free medical treatment, you had to pay until 1912, once a year regular check ups.
1908- Old Age Pensions, had to be deserving (no bad reputation of laziness, drunkenness, arrest), over 70 years of age, had to earn less than £21 a year, a single person earned 5 shillings p/w and a couple earned 7 shillings 6d p/w, discouraged elderly from saving,lift the shadow of the workhouse, many were grateful, Lord Salsbury disliked it.
-Children's Charter, collection of measures, helped neglected children, stopped them from buying alcohol, tobacco and fireworks, put a curfew so no prostitution, limited hours, certain jobs that they could do, borstals to reform children, separate courts and prison to deal with young offenders,
1909- Trade Board Act, set up minimum wage for the sweated trades.
1910- Labour exchanges, set up by Winston Churchill, first one set up in 1910, by 1914 had 400 exchanges that filled in millions of vacancies a year, was like a job centre.
1911- National Insurance Act- NON CONTRIBUTORY WORKER PAID INTO BUT LOW PAY WAS ONE OF THE REASONS THEY WERE POOR.
Health Insurance, covered all workers covering £160 or less per year, so covered most of the working class. 16 million, when ill or unable to work could claim insurance since you had paid 4d a week, and gov paid 3d and employer paid 2d, so you had 9d of insurance a week and you could claim payments of 10 shillings a week for 26 weeks.
Unemployment Insurance, for the workers who were seasonally unemployed as they did jobs such as ship-building, or engineering, covered 2.5 mil, was the work of Churchill, When unemployed (as when employed they paid along with their employer 2.5 a week) they could claim payments 7 shillings a week for 15 weeks.
2 Women's Suffrage,
NUWSS- National Union Women Suffrage Society.
Led by Millicent Fawcett, set up i 1897, which united all women suffrage groups together
Methods-Peaceful, Patient, Persuasive methods, they did rallies, campaigns, one rally in Hyde Park with 250,000 people-500,000, letters to Gov and Parliament, had many supporters.
Problem- Had to be patient in a male-dominated society who did not want to listen, and WSPU undid all their good work by putting back the stereotype that women were hysterical that they tried to remove.
WSPU - Women Social Political Union, formed in 1903 after getting tired of slowness of NUWSS.
Led By Emmeline Pankhurst and daughter Sylvia and Christabel
Used direct action at first used minor things like chaining themselves to railings, smashing windows and then turned to militant action in 1911 after drop of Concillation Bill, disrupting political meetings, meetings of opposition, Assaulted policemen, Mp's and King, bombed LG's house, Burned 3 Scottish castles, burnt golf courses, set on fire postboxes, general arson, hunger strikes, Emily Wilding Davidson Epson Derby, 1913.
Problems- Their militant action made people put off them.
2.3 Successes and Failures?
By 1914- Had 100,000 memebers
- Had 500 branches and received mass publicity.
By 1914- magazine had a circulation of 40,000.
- Publicity, people aware of the cause.
FAILURES= Destruction of LG's house who would, "Gladly give them the vote."
1906- High point, new Liberals in government and 400/650 MPS voted for women suffrage.
1908-New Womens Suffrage Bill but then later dropped.
Concillation Bill- but dropped in 1911 and gave all men the vote.
2.4 Reasons for and against the vote?
-In God's eyes everyone is equal
-Women were more independent.
-In their colonies, such as New Zealand, women had already received the vote.
-They already had the vote in the Local Election.
-Women staying in school until after 16.
-Women being nurses, mayors, working in offices.
-Parliament needed a women's touch.
-Parliaments decision affected the women so they needed a say.
-Husband voting on behalf of the family anyway.
-The system works why change it.
-Not all men had the vote.
-They don't protect the country.
-Too hysterical for Parliament as displayed by WSPU.
-They would neglect children and abandon job at home as more focused on Politics.
-Mix jobs of sexes.
-Even Queen Victoria opposed to the vote.
2.5 War Effort
Women could not be denied the vote after war they basically helped them win.
WHAT THEY DID-
-Helped the Munition Crisis by working in munition crisis.
-Women's Land Army
-White Feather Campaign
-Nurses for soldiers in war front
-Helped in transportation of coal
-Helped give out food to soldiers.
2.6 Did WSPU action undo NUWSS?
Yeyaaaaaaaaaah. I mean yes they did give them publicity and kept the cause in the headlines, and yeah their successes didn't outweigh their failures as, "All publicity was good publicity".
they angered many, they thought they were truly mental and not capable, scared people away from giving the vote and angered many politicians as they could not be seen giving way into violent so they hardened their opposition to women suffrage, one politician included LG, whose house they bombed.
3 Home Front, 1914-1918
3.1 What was DORA? And how were Civillians affected?
Defence Of The Realm Act, 1914- Gave the government sweeping powers to control the public, what it did:
-BST, more time to work
-Control of movement to monitor spies.
-Watering down alcohol, so workforce stay sober.
3.2 Women during WW1
Couldn't of won war without them, they deserved the vote, and got vote in the Representation of The Peoples' Act in 1918, but only women over 30.
3.3 How effective was propaganda
How effective was propaganda?
Well propaganda was put out there to encourage people to join, increase war morale, increase war effort, make people feel guilty. Try and get people to think the way the government wanted. Made men who were not in army feel like cowards. Built up hatred towards the Germans calling them the 'brute' and lying about the atrocities they did to Brit soldiers, French and especially the Belgian soldiers. People believed propaganda was the truth above all else.
3.4 Attitudes to ToV after WW1
"Squeeze the German lemon till the pips squeak."
"Revenge for Germany"
Public opinion strongly influenced LG.
They believed the Germans were the,'brute'.
Strong hatred after the slaughter of WW1 everyone knew someone who had lost someone, wanted pay back, v, v, v, angrry.
August, September 1914- 450,000+ recruited.
General Kitchener and his army.
Believed war was gonna end by Christmas.
Less people enlisted.
Conchies, Conscientious Objectors who were pacifists and disagreed with war got put as doctors, stretch bearers and worked in munition factories and coal miners.