4.2 - What pressures currently confront cities and how are they changing them?

RoryFlynn2
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-level Geography G3 (Cities) Mind Map on 4.2 - What pressures currently confront cities and how are they changing them?, created by RoryFlynn2 on 06/10/2013.

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RoryFlynn2
Created by RoryFlynn2 over 6 years ago
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4.2 - What pressures currently confront cities and how are they changing them?
1 Transport and communications
1.1 Internet accessibility
1.2 Decentralisation
1.2.1 Doughnut effect
1.2.2 'Dead heart'
1.3 Road degradation
1.4 Traffic congestion
1.4.1 Pollution
1.4.1.1 Enter text here
1.5 Over dependency on public transport
1.5.1 Over-crowding on trains
1.5.1.1 i.e. London underground
1.6 Case study: Bristol?
2 Disparities in wealth
2.1 Rising land values
2.1.1 Homelessness/ slums
2.2 Rate of urbanisation
2.3 Over-population
2.3.1 Unemployment
2.4 Creation of ghettos
2.5 Poorer areas lack services
2.6 More violent crimes within cities
2.6.1 People are less familiar with each other
2.7 Asylum seekers
2.7.1 Claim benefits
2.7.2 Illegal immigration
2.8 Case study: Plymouth, Devonport
3 Areal extent
3.1 Urban sprawl
3.1.1 Villages + towns swallowed up by growing cities
3.1.2 Phoenix, Arizona
3.1.2.1 No planning - constant spreading
3.1.2.2 Located in the desert
3.1.2.2.1 Water pumped from Colorado River
3.1.2.2.1.1 River over-pumped - dries up
3.2 Environmental restrictions
3.2.1 Mexico City
3.2.1.1 Inside an ex-volcano
3.2.1.2 Stops expansion
3.2.1.3 City is sinking as ground is soft
3.2.1.4 Sewage is brought back up - unhygienic
3.3 Rio De Janeiro
3.3.1 Population approx 11.6 milllion
3.3.1.1 2010 - pop 6 million - massive growth
3.3.1.1.1 150% growth sine 1960
3.3.2 Urban area covers 720 sq miles
3.3.2.1 Pop density - 16,100 mile sq
3.3.3 Inner core only 2% of city's growth last decade
3.3.3.1 Area surrounding that was 3% of growth
3.3.4 Biggest growth in suburbanisation - 43%
3.3.5 Is spreading over local mountains (Sugar Loaf + Corcovado) - not contained
3.3.6 600 favelas increasing + expanding the city
4 Quality of environment
4.1 Increasing population
4.1.1 Sewage issues
4.1.1.1 London
4.1.1.2 Mexico
4.1.2 Social disadvantages
4.2 Access to open space
4.2.1 Lack of green areas
4.3 Water accessibility
4.4 Increasing industry
4.4.1 Pollution/ enviro degradation
4.5 Clean environments
4.5.1 Pavements, street furniture, lack of graffiti + vandalism
4.6 Air quality
4.7 Noise pollution
4.8 Crime
4.8.1 People don't feel safe
4.9 Chongqing, China
4.9.1 Social/ enviro problems
4.9.2 Poor people - low paid jobs - 20p per hour
4.9.2.1 In some nightclubs a table costs a minimum of £50 - more than poor make in a month
4.9.3 In some cases 4 families live in one home
4.9.4 20 million pop in 2020
4.9.5 Appalling air quality even for China's standards
4.9.5.1 EU blames air pollution for premature deaths
4.9.6 £10 billion plan to improve quality of live
4.9.7 Untreated sewage - main biological pollutant
4.9.8 High motocycle industry - wants to move to cars
4.9.9 Each year 1/2 million people move into the city
4.9.10 Waste landfill sites the size of reservoirs
4.9.10.1 Huge amounts of carbon + methane emissions
4.9.10.1.1 Worries of toxins reaching water supply
4.9.11 Crime increased
4.9.11.1 Since 2002 - Drug cases increased 6x
4.9.11.2 At least 3 violent protests too
4.9.12 Far behind on environmental protection
5 Pressures in London
5.1 Population and domestic demand for energy
5.1.1 Projected population/ dwelling increase
5.1.1.1 460,000 new by 2016
5.1.2 660,000 new homes by 2025
5.1.2.1 In this time: Projected 10% reduction in heat demands
5.1.2.1.1 Due to improved insulation
5.1.3 New homes - demand lower - 3000kWh per annum
5.1.4 Electricity demand for lights + appliances 20% less - 2700kWh
5.2 Non-domestic demand
5.2.1 Increase in employment of 845,000 + 24% increase in domestic floor space
5.2.2 25% reduction in annual heat demand
5.2.3 30% reduction in electricity
5.2.4 Proportion of electrically heated floor space will fall to 10% in new buildings
5.2.5 Proportion of air-conditioned offices remain at 50%
5.3 Predicted water balance
5.3.1 During most summers water from the Thames and Lee meet demand for water
5.3.2 Periods of low rainfall threaten security of supply
5.3.3 2 winters of below average rainfall can lead to drought conditions
5.3.4 Low rainfall in winter months limits refill of groundwater stores
5.3.4.1 Leads to low river flows following spring/summer
5.3.5 Supply across London unbalanced
5.3.5.1 Some areas experience deficit

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