IB Physics

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Mind Map by dpacheco_dpl, updated more than 1 year ago
dpacheco_dpl
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Mind Map on IB Physics, created by dpacheco_dpl on 09/15/2014.

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IB Physics
1 Measurements
1.1 Uncertainties
1.1.1 Sum and diference:
1.1.1.1 Sum of the absolute uncertainties
1.1.2 Product and Quotient
1.1.2.1 Addition of the percentage uncertainties
1.1.3 Powers and roots
1.1.3.1 The product of the exponent and the percentage uncertainty
1.2 Types of error
1.2.1 Systematic: due to system or apparatus
1.2.2 Random: due to uncontrollable factors
1.3 Vectors
1.3.1 Physical quantities with magnitude and direction
1.4 Scalars
1.4.1 Physical quantities with only magnitude
2 Mechanics
2.1 Kinematics
2.1.1 Uniform motion
2.1.1.1 linear trajectory and constant velocity
2.1.1.2 Velocity is the rate of change of position
2.1.2 Uniformly accelerated motion
2.1.2.1 Acceleration
2.1.2.1.1 change of velocity per unit time
2.1.2.2 Linear trajectory and constant acceleration
2.2 Forces and dynamics
2.2.1 Force
2.2.1.1 First Law of Newton
2.2.1.1.1 An object will remain in its state of motion, at rest or with constant velocity, unless and external unbalanced force is applied to it
2.2.1.2 Second Law of Newton
2.2.1.2.1 The acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to its mass and directly proportional to the net force applied to it
2.2.1.2.2 The force applied on an object is the rate of change of momentum
2.2.1.2.2.1 Momentum = mass times velocity
2.2.1.2.2.1.1 Impulse is the change of momentum or the force applied on an object times the time interval in which it is applied.
2.2.1.2.2.1.2 Conservation of momentum
2.2.1.2.2.1.2.1 The momentum of an isolated system remains constant
2.2.1.3 Third law of Newton
2.2.1.3.1 When an object exerts a force on another object, the second object will expert a force equal in magnitude but in opposite direction to the first object
2.3 Work, energy and power
2.3.1 Energy is the ability to do work
2.3.1.1 Work is transfer of Energy
2.3.1.1.1 Power is the rate at which work is done or rate at which energy is transferded
2.3.1.1.2 Work = force times the displacement of an object
2.3.1.2 Potential energy = force of gravity times hight of an object
2.3.1.3 Kinetic energy = (1/2)(m)(v^2)
2.3.1.4 Conservation on energy
2.3.1.4.1 Ideal
2.3.1.4.1.1 Energy is not lost by heat to surrounding
2.3.1.4.2 Not ideal
2.3.1.4.2.1 Energy is lost as heat to the surroundings
2.4 Uniform circular motion
2.4.1 Centripetal acceleration: acceleration towards the center
2.4.1.1 Centripetal acceleration = (v^2)/(radius)
2.4.1.1.1 Centripetal force: sum of all forces towards the center.
2.4.2 Angular displacement: Change of angle during a rotation
2.4.2.1 Angular velocity: angular displacement over time
2.4.2.1.1 Frequency: number of revolutions per unit time
2.4.2.1.1.1 Time is the time needed for one revolution
3 Thermal
3.1 Heat (Q) is the transfer of energy
3.2 Change of temperature
3.2.1 Heat capacity (C) is the energy needed to raise the temperature of an object by 1º C
3.2.1.1 Specific heat capacity (c) is the energy needed to raise the temperature of a material by 1ºC per 1 kg of the material
3.2.1.1.1 c=(heat)/(mass times change of temperature)
3.2.2 Change of phase
3.2.2.1 Latent heat capacity: energy needed to change of phase per unit mass
3.2.2.1.1 Latent heat of fusion (Lf): energy needed to change from solid to liquid per unit mass
3.2.2.1.1.1 Latent heat of evaporation: energy needed to change from liquid to gas per unit mass
3.2.2.2 Evaporation
3.2.2.2.1 Boiling
3.2.2.2.1.1 Happens only at boiling point and in all molecules of the object
3.2.2.2.2 Happens all the time and only in molecules of the surface
4 Oscillations and waves
4.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
4.1.1 Conditions: Acceleration must be proportional to the displacement from equilibrium position and acceleration is always directed toward equilibrium point
4.1.1.1 When starting at maximum negative, displacement is negative; velocity is positive, but zero; and acceleration is at its maximum.
4.1.1.1.1 When starting from maximum positive, displacement is positive; velocity is negative and zero; acceleration is at its maximum
4.1.1.2 Characteristics
4.1.1.2.1 Amplitude: maximum displacement of the object from eq. position; Eq. position: position when the system is at rest; Time period: time it takes for one cycle; Frequency: number of cycles per unit time.
4.2 Waves: disturbance that propagates through a medium
4.2.1 Pulse: when disturbance is just once
4.2.1.1 Traveling wave: continuous disturbance that propagates energy
4.2.1.1.1 Stationary: static; they do not propagate energy
4.2.1.1.2 Transversal: Displacement of medium is perpendicular to the propagation of energy
4.2.1.1.2.1 Longitudinal: Displacement of medium is parallel to the propagation of energy
4.2.1.1.2.1.1 sound
4.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Velocity: around 340 m/s; cannot be polarized; can be difracted in big openings; refraction: more in solids
4.2.1.1.2.2 Light
4.2.1.1.2.2.1 Speed = 3x10^8 m/s; can be polarized; can be difracted; can be reflected; can be refracted
4.2.2 Characteristics
4.2.2.1 Amplitude: Maximum displacement of the medium from eq. point; period: time for one cycle to pass through a point; frequency: number of cycles that pass through a point per unit time; wavelength: distance bewteen two consecutive crests in phase; wavespeed: speed of propagation of a wave.
4.2.2.2 Properties
4.2.2.2.1 Reflection
4.2.2.2.1.1 When the wave hits a different medium, the wave bounces back
4.2.2.2.2 Refraction
4.2.2.2.2.1 when a wave passes to another medium
4.2.2.2.3 Difraction
4.2.2.2.3.1 When a wave encounters an obstacle
5 Electric current
5.1 Electric current: amount of charges per unit time
5.1.1 Electric potential difference: work done to move a charge from one point to another point per unit charge
5.1.1.1 Electron Volt: Energy needed to move an electron through a p.d. of 1 volt.
5.1.1.2 Energy & Power
5.1.1.2.1 e.m.f.: Chemical energy converted to electric energy per unit charge
5.1.1.2.1.1 p.d.: Electric energy converted to thermal energy per unit charge
5.1.1.2.1.1.1 Power delivered: amount of chemical energy converted to electric energy per unit time
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Power dissipated: amount of electric energy converted to thermal per unit time
5.1.2 Ohm's Law: The electric current through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to the p.d. across it, remaining temperature and other physical quantities constant.
5.1.2.1 Voltage = Current times resistance
5.1.2.1.1 Resistance: The ability of an object to opose a flow of current
5.1.2.1.1.1 Resistivity: Ability of a material to opose a flow of current
5.1.2.2 Conductors
5.1.2.2.1 Copper, salty water, grafite, silver, plasma, minerals
5.1.2.3 Insulators
5.1.2.3.1 Pure water, plastic, dry wood, air
5.1.3 Circuits
5.1.3.1 Parallel
5.1.3.1.1 Equivalent resistance= sum of all resistances in a circuit
5.1.3.1.1.1 Voltage = the sum of all voltages
5.1.3.1.1.1.1 Current is equal in all the circuit
5.1.3.2 Series
5.1.3.2.1 Equivalent resistance= (1) / [(1/r1)+(1/r2)]
5.1.3.2.1.1 Voltage is equal in all the circuit
5.1.3.2.1.1.1 Total current = sum of all currents
5.1.3.3 Mixed
5.1.3.3.1 Form parallel and series circuits from the farthest to closest
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