1.1.3.1 The product of the
exponent and the
percentage uncertainty
1.2 Types of
error
1.2.1 Systematic: due to
system or apparatus
1.2.2 Random: due to
uncontrollable factors
1.3 Vectors
1.3.1 Physical
quantities with
magnitude and
direction
1.4 Scalars
1.4.1 Physical quantities
with only magnitude
2 Mechanics
2.1 Kinematics
2.1.1 Uniform motion
2.1.1.1 linear trajectory and
constant velocity
2.1.1.2 Velocity is the rate of change
of position
2.1.2 Uniformly
accelerated
motion
2.1.2.1 Acceleration
2.1.2.1.1 change of velocity
per unit time
2.1.2.2 Linear trajectory and
constant acceleration
2.2 Forces and
dynamics
2.2.1 Force
2.2.1.1 First Law of
Newton
2.2.1.1.1 An object will remain in its
state of motion, at rest or with
constant velocity, unless and
external unbalanced force is
applied to it
2.2.1.2 Second Law of Newton
2.2.1.2.1 The acceleration of an object is
inversely proportional to its
mass and directly proportional
to the net force applied to it
2.2.1.2.2 The force applied on an
object is the rate of
change of momentum
2.2.1.2.2.1 Momentum = mass times velocity
2.2.1.2.2.1.1 Impulse is the change of
momentum or the force applied on
an object times the time interval in
which it is applied.
2.2.1.2.2.1.2 Conservation of momentum
2.2.1.2.2.1.2.1 The momentum of an isolated
system remains constant
2.2.1.3 Third law of Newton
2.2.1.3.1 When an object exerts a
force on another object, the
second object will expert a
force equal in magnitude but
in opposite direction to the
first object
2.3 Work, energy
and power
2.3.1 Energy is the ability to do work
2.3.1.1 Work is transfer of Energy
2.3.1.1.1 Power is the rate at which
work is done or rate at
which energy is transferded
2.3.1.1.2 Work = force times
the displacement of
an object
2.3.1.2 Potential energy =
force of gravity times
hight of an object
2.3.1.3 Kinetic energy =
(1/2)(m)(v^2)
2.3.1.4 Conservation on energy
2.3.1.4.1 Ideal
2.3.1.4.1.1 Energy is not lost by
heat to surrounding
2.3.1.4.2 Not ideal
2.3.1.4.2.1 Energy is lost as heat
to the surroundings
2.4 Uniform
circular motion
2.4.1 Centripetal acceleration:
acceleration towards the center
2.4.1.1 Centripetal acceleration =
(v^2)/(radius)
2.4.1.1.1 Centripetal force: sum of
all forces towards the
center.
2.4.2 Angular displacement: Change
of angle during a rotation
2.4.2.1 Angular velocity: angular
displacement over time
2.4.2.1.1 Frequency: number of
revolutions per unit time
2.4.2.1.1.1 Time is the time
needed for one
revolution
3 Thermal
3.1 Heat (Q) is the transfer of
energy
3.2 Change of temperature
3.2.1 Heat capacity (C) is the energy
needed to raise the temperature
of an object by 1º C
3.2.1.1 Specific heat capacity (c) is the energy
needed to raise the temperature of a
material by 1ºC per 1 kg of the material
3.2.1.1.1 c=(heat)/(mass times change of temperature)
3.2.2 Change of phase
3.2.2.1 Latent heat capacity: energy needed
to change of phase per unit mass
3.2.2.1.1 Latent heat of fusion (Lf): energy
needed to change from solid to
liquid per unit mass
3.2.2.1.1.1 Latent heat of
evaporation:
energy needed to
change from
liquid to gas per
unit mass
3.2.2.2 Evaporation
3.2.2.2.1 Boiling
3.2.2.2.1.1 Happens only at boiling point and
in all molecules of the object
3.2.2.2.2 Happens all the time and only
in molecules of the surface
4 Oscillations and waves
4.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
4.1.1 Conditions: Acceleration must be
proportional to the displacement
from equilibrium position and
acceleration is always directed
toward equilibrium point
4.1.1.1 When starting at maximum
negative, displacement is
negative; velocity is positive,
but zero; and acceleration is
at its maximum.
4.1.1.1.1 When starting from maximum
positive, displacement is
positive; velocity is negative
and zero; acceleration is at its
maximum
4.1.1.2 Characteristics
4.1.1.2.1 Amplitude: maximum displacement
of the object from eq. position; Eq.
position: position when the system
is at rest; Time period: time it takes
for one cycle; Frequency: number of
cycles per unit time.
4.2 Waves: disturbance that
propagates through a medium
4.2.1 Pulse: when
disturbance is just once
4.2.1.1 Traveling wave: continuous
disturbance that propagates
energy
4.2.1.1.1 Stationary: static; they do
not propagate energy
4.2.1.1.2 Transversal:
Displacement of medium
is perpendicular to the
propagation of energy
4.2.1.1.2.1 Longitudinal: Displacement
of medium is parallel to the
propagation of energy
4.2.1.1.2.1.1 sound
4.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Velocity: around 340 m/s;
cannot be polarized; can be
difracted in big openings;
refraction: more in solids
4.2.1.1.2.2 Light
4.2.1.1.2.2.1 Speed = 3x10^8 m/s; can be
polarized; can be difracted; can
be reflected; can be refracted
4.2.2 Characteristics
4.2.2.1 Amplitude: Maximum displacement of the
medium from eq. point; period: time for one
cycle to pass through a point; frequency: number of
cycles that pass through a point per unit
time; wavelength: distance bewteen two
consecutive crests in phase; wavespeed:
speed of propagation of a wave.
4.2.2.2 Properties
4.2.2.2.1 Reflection
4.2.2.2.1.1 When the wave hits a
different medium, the wave
bounces back
4.2.2.2.2 Refraction
4.2.2.2.2.1 when a wave
passes to another
medium
4.2.2.2.3 Difraction
4.2.2.2.3.1 When a wave
encounters an
obstacle
5 Electric current
5.1 Electric current: amount of charges
per unit time
5.1.1 Electric potential difference: work
done to move a charge from one point
to another point per unit charge
5.1.1.1 Electron Volt:
Energy needed to
move an electron
through a p.d. of 1
volt.
5.1.1.2 Energy & Power
5.1.1.2.1 e.m.f.: Chemical
energy converted to
electric energy per unit
charge
5.1.1.2.1.1 p.d.: Electric energy
converted to thermal
energy per unit charge
5.1.1.2.1.1.1 Power delivered: amount of
chemical energy converted
to electric energy per unit
time
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Power dissipated: amount
of electric energy
converted to thermal per
unit time
5.1.2 Ohm's Law: The electric
current through an ohmic
conductor is directly
proportional to the p.d. across
it, remaining temperature and
other physical quantities
constant.
5.1.2.1 Voltage = Current times
resistance
5.1.2.1.1 Resistance: The
ability of an object
to opose a flow of
current
5.1.2.1.1.1 Resistivity: Ability of
a material to opose
a flow of current