Chemical Functional Groups and chemicals

07cowanl
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Degree Chemistry Mind Map on Chemical Functional Groups and chemicals, created by 07cowanl on 06/19/2013.

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07cowanl
Created by 07cowanl over 6 years ago
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Chemical Functional Groups and chemicals
1 Carboxylic Acids
1.1 R-COOH
1.2 fairly weak acid
1.2.1 Can't easily give away H+ ions from OH group.
2 Alcohols
2.1 primary
2.1.1 R-OH
2.1.2 can be oxidised into aldehydes or carboxylic acids.
2.2 secondary
2.2.1 R-COH-R
2.2.2 can be oxidised into ketones
2.3 tertiary
2.3.1 R-C(CH3)OH-R
2.3.2 cannot be oxidised
3 Acyl Chlorides
3.1 R-COCl
3.2 Carboxylic acid derivatives
3.3 nasty chemicals
3.4 React with amines to form amides
4 Esters
4.1 R-COO-R
4.2 carboxylic acid (or derivative) + alcohol
4.3 smell sweet/distinctive.
5 Ethers
5.1 R-C-O-C-R
5.2 Isomers of alcohols
6 Acid Anhydrides
6.1 R-COOCO-R
6.2 carboxylic acid derivative
6.2.1 formed when 2 carboxylic acid molecules react together (also forms water)
7 Aldehydes
7.1 R-COH
7.2 product of primary alcohol being oxidised and then distilled off.
7.2.1 Would further oxidise to a carboxylic acid if not distilled off
8 Ketones
8.1 R-CO-R
8.2 Product of secondary alcohol being oxidised
9 Alkenes
9.1 R-C=C-R
9.2 have the same molecular formula as cycloalkanes.
10 Alkanes
10.1 R Chains (C-H bonds only)
10.2 Simplest hydrocarbon chains
10.3 Can be made into alkenes by removing a hydrogen molecule
11 Amides/Peptides
11.1 R-CONH-R
11.2 Carboxylic acid derivative
11.3 Amides can be primary or secondary
11.4 Can be hydrolysed into amine and carboxylic acid
12 Amines
12.1 R-CNH2
12.2 Alkane derivative
13 Phenols
13.1 Benzene ring with an OH functional group attached
13.2 Wont react with alcohols to form esters
13.3 Nasty chemical (can give you a chemical burn)
14 Amino acids
14.1 H2N-C(R)-COOH
14.2 Carboxylic acid and amine combined.
14.3 Can form zwitter ions and act as buffers
15 Proteins
15.1 Many amino acids joined together
15.2 R-C=O-NH-R
15.2.1 This is a peptide link, which is also a secondary amide
15.3 Can be hydrolysed to get the L-amino acids back
15.4 Only made up of L enantiomers
16 Alkynes
16.1 R-C (triple bond)C-R
17 Nitriles
17.1 R-C-C(triple bond)N
17.2 Used in organic reactions to add an extra carbon to a carbon chain
18 Cyanohydrin
18.1 Formed when an aldehyde reacts with HCN in alkaline conditions
18.2 R-C(OH)(CN)-R

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