Materials and their properties

joe lack
Mind Map by joe lack, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Billie Juniper
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joe lack
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Mind map of basic material properties by material.

Resource summary

Materials and their properties
1 Metals
1.1 Ferrous
1.1.1 CAST IRON Pros Strong Tough Stiff Cheap Easily Machined Easily Recycled Cons Rusts High Density Poor Toughness Can be alloyed to improve Uses Brake Discs Machine Tools
1.1.2 MILD STEEL Pros Strong Stiff Tough Very Cheap Malleable Easily Recycled (magnetic) Cons High Density Poor Electrical and Thermal Conductivity Uses Large Structures Bridges Buildings Oil Rigs Car Body Panels Trains Machine Tools Pressure Vessels Process Metal Forming Die Casting Rolling is important for structures like I-beams Easily Extruded for pipes, tubes, wire Readily Machined Joining Suitable for most Not suitable for soldering or brazing
1.1.3 STAINLESS STEEL Pros Corrosion Resistant Strong Tough Ductile Stiff Cheap Malleable Easily Recycled (magnetic) Cons Expensive High Density Poor Electrical and Thermal Conductivity Uses Cutlery Chemical Plant and Surgical Instruments Process Metal Forming Usually Wrought Not Cast Powder Metal Forming Joining Suitable for most Not suitable for soldering or brazing
1.2 Non Ferrous
1.2.1 BRASS Pros Reasonably Strong Corrosion Resistant Easy to Shape Cons Expensive Uses Ornamental Fittings Plumbing Fittings Screws Bullets Process Readily Machined Soldering and Brazing Readily Extruded as quite soft
1.2.2 COPPER Pros Electrical Conductivity Corrosion Resistant Ductile Malleable Cons Expensive Low Strength Uses Electrical Wire Domestic Water Pipes Coins Process Metel Forming Easily Cast Readily Extruded because soft Readily Machined Soldering and Brazing for electrical connection and pipe
1.2.3 ALUMINIUM Pros Lightweight Durable Corrosion Resistant Stiff Ductile Malleable Easy to recycle Cons Difficult to Arc Weld Uses Aircraft Bicycles Car Engines Space Frame car bodies Drinks Cans Window Frames Process Metal Forming Easy with most Difficulties with oxidising in powder process Rolling (foil) Die Casting common Readily Extruded Sheet Forming (cars) Machining Soft, so easily machined Joining Suitable for most Difficult to arc-weld and an inert gas is needed
1.2.4 TITANIUM Pros Strong, even at high temps Hard Wearing Non Corrosive Light Weight Stiff Chemically Inert in Human Body Cons Expensive Chemically reactive when hot Difficult to Shape Uses Surgical Implants Performance Bicycles Fan Blades for Aircraft Process Metal Forming Special Die Casting Process Needed Because Reactive Forging for Aircraft Arc Welding only with inert gas or in vacuum
2 Polymers
2.1 Thermosetting/thermosets
2.1.1 Characteristics Harder Stronger When Heated permanently hard pressure can be applied to cure degeneration if heated excessively Toxic Fumes Brittle Better stability
2.2 Thermoplastic/thermoplasts
2.2.1 Characteristics Soft Ductile Flexible Can be manufactured on a branch Sensitive to temperature When Heated Soften Eventually Liquify Reversible and can be repeated No toxic fumes
2.2.2 Polythene Pros High Density Resistant to Chemicals Tough Cheap Flexible Electrical Resistance Transparent Easily Coloured Uses Dustbins Water and Gas Pipes Carrier Bags Food Packaging Sandwich Boxes Process Polymer Forming Most suitable, injection moulding most common Extruded for pipes Rotational moulding for large products (i.e. dustbins) Blow Moulding for bottles Vacuum forming for packaging Machining Soft so easily machined Usually formed to near-net-shape so little cutting needed No polishing needed Joining Adhesive bonding most common Friction welding for pipes
2.2.3 Nylon Pros Strong Lightweight Used for broad range of products Easily made as a fibre Good heat resistance <250° Uses Clothes Fishing Line Small Gears Zip Fasteners Power Tool Cases
3 Composites
3.1.1 Properties Not Brittle Ductile Chemical Resistance
3.1.2 Uses Aerospace Automotive Underwater
3.1.3 Sheets of glass fibre laid at right angles sandwiched between a plastic Usually done in a mould and left to cure
3.2 Reinforced Concrete
4 Ceramics
4.1 Types
4.1.1 Clay Mineral
4.1.2 Glass
4.1.3 Cement
4.2 Properties
4.2.1 Good Insulators
4.2.2 Poor Conductors
4.2.3 Hard
4.2.4 Brittle
4.2.5 Resistant to High Temperatures Harsh Environments
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