A Level: Cognitive Psychology (AQA)

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Mind Map on A Level: Cognitive Psychology (AQA), created by baovidao on 10/02/2014.

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A Level: Cognitive Psychology (AQA)
1 Short Term Memory
1.1 Duration
1.1.1 It is very fallible
1.1.2 Can be rehearsed and then moved to the LTM
1.1.3 Lloyd and Margaret Peterson (1959) tested that after a 3 seconds interval, participants remember 90% of the information while after a 18 seconds interval, only 2% can be remembered
1.1.3.1 Trigram (WRT 303 or SCX 591)-It had to be meaningless and participants count backwards after seeing that
1.1.3.2 Only test one part of memory (for consonance and syllables) and memory can be displaced bc of the counting backwards
2 Long Term Memory
2.1 Duration
2.1.1 Shepard (1967) and Bahrick et al. (1975)
2.1.1.1 Meaningful information is easier to remember
2.1.2 Anywhere from 2 hours to 100 hours
3 The Working Memory Model
3.1 Strengths
3.1.1 Attempts to explain how memory functions and has relevant information
3.1.2 PET scans have shown different parts using verbal and visual tasks
3.1.3 There are at least 2 stores in the WWM due to research from dual task studies
3.1.4 Many psychologist use it as reference
3.1.5 Better the MSM because it explains the STM in terms of both temporary storage and active processing
3.2 Weaknesses
3.2.1 WMM doesn't explain changes in processing ability that occur as a result of time
3.2.2 The capacity of the Central Executive has never been measured
3.2.3 WM only concerns itself with STM and is not comprehensive model of memory
3.2.4 The most important component, the Central Executive is least known about
4 Multi-Store Model
4.1 Strengths
4.1.1 Very useful as it helps psychologists construct test table models of memory
4.1.2 Morris et al (1985) showed that information from the LTM and STM are two-way
4.1.3 There are significant research evidence for the distinction between Sensory, Short-Term and Long Term Memory
4.1.4 Miller suggested that there are distinction between types of memory store.
4.1.5 The recency effect appears in serial recall tasks
4.2 Weaknesses
4.2.1 Rehearsal is not the only factor in transferring information from STM to LTM
4.2.2 MSM is too simple and fails to reflect the complexity of human memory
4.2.3 Most of the evidence comes from laboratory studies
4.2.4 Cohen suggests that capacity cannot be measured purely in terms of the amount of information to be recalled, but rather the nature of information to be recalled
4.2.5 Rehearsal is not always needed for information to be stored and some items can't be rehearsed
5 Eyewitness testimony
5.1 Accuracy
5.1.1 Leading Questions can distort the accuracy of an eyewitness
5.1.1.1 Loftus and Palmer (1947) with the car crash experiment
5.2 Refers to when eyewitnesses are used as evidence in court to identify someone who had comitted a crime
5.3 witness encodes into the LTM details of the event and the persons involved. Then retains the information for a period of time. Afterwards, retrieves it from storage
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