1880's Blue Cotton Shirt

enviroperforms
Mind Map by enviroperforms, updated more than 1 year ago
enviroperforms
Created by enviroperforms almost 8 years ago
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Description

Bacharel tearing stuff apart Mind Map on 1880's Blue Cotton Shirt, created by enviroperforms on 07/03/2013.

Resource summary

1880's Blue Cotton Shirt
  1. DISPOSAL
    1. RAW MATERIAL Louisiana - EEUU
      1. cotton
        1. cotton bale

          Annotations:

          • Lint  is then compressed into bales which are about five feet tall and weigh almost 500 pounds. The cotton from a single bale can make more than 200 pairs of jeans, or 3,000 pairs of socks, or 650 bath towels.
          1. cotton lint

            Annotations:

            • The ginned cotton fibre, known as lint.
            1. raw cotton
              1. cotton plant
                1. cotton seeds
                  1. IN
                    1. labour

                      Annotations:

                      • Harvested by hand - slaves often working in appalling conditions. Men, women and children worked in the plantations from dawn until dusk, the cotton bolls were put into heavy sacks which would be emptied into waiting baskets at the end of each row. A good picker could harvest 100-300 lbs of cotton a day, consisting of one-third fibres and two-thirds seeds
                      1. man
                        1. hours/day
                          1. paid/hour
                        2. woman
                          1. hours/day
                            1. paid/hour
                          2. children
                            1. hours/day
                              1. paid/hour
                          3. energy
                            1. animals
                              1. horses ??
                              2. water
                                1. 20 tones/ water/acre

                                  Annotations:

                                  • about the same amount of water as wheat. Because it needs a lot of sun and water it is often grown in hot, dry places with water supplied by irrigation
                                2. sun

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Cotton needs lots of sun, a long hot summer and a fair amount of water to grow. It does well in dry climates and rich soils but does not do well in a climates that are too cold or too wet and needs a growing season of 200 frost-free days.
                                3. capital
                                  1. income
                                    1. sales

                                      Annotations:

                                      • The average yield is around 600 pounds of cotton per acre
                                  2. infraestructure
                                    1. communications
                                      1. workshops
                                        1. stables
                                          1. workers houses
                                          2. raw materials
                                            1. seeds
                                          3. OUT
                                            1. WASTE
                                              1. SOLIDS
                                                1. human waste
                                                  1. urine
                                                    1. faeces
                                                    2. organic waste
                                                      1. seeds
                                                        1. reused
                                                          1. cotton seeds
                                                            1. fertliser
                                                            2. illigally dumped into the river mississipi or canal
                                                              1. eutrophication ??
                                                            3. stems
                                                              1. composted
                                                              2. husks
                                                                1. animal food
                                                              3. construction
                                                                1. rubish / litter

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • test
                                                                  • sbs;oub;s
                                                                  • snhou
                                                                  1. ??
                                                                2. POLLUTION
                                                                  1. ??
                                                                3. capital
                                                                  1. expenditure
                                                                  2. IMPACTS
                                                                    1. LAND
                                                                      1. natural land occupation
                                                                        1. ?? forests
                                                                        2. ?? Nutrients deplition

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • Cotton depletes nutrients in the soil quickly and is often rotated with other crops.
                                                                          1. how to measure soil lacks of nutrients ??
                                                                  3. cotton gin

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • Cotton fibres separated from seeds and impurities
                                                                    1. IN
                                                                      1. OUT
                                                                        1. WASTE
                                                                          1. SOLID 66%
                                                                            1. seeds
                                                                              1. reused
                                                                                1. cotton seeds
                                                                                  1. Cotton Gin Frogmore Plantation Louisiana EEUU
                                                                              2. stems
                                                                                1. composted
                                                                                2. husks
                                                                                  1. animal food
                                                                                3. pollution
                                                                                  1. air
                                                                                    1. water
                                                                                      1. soil
                                                                                    2. IMPACTS
                                                                                      1. human health
                                                                                        1. land
                                                                                          1. land occupation
                                                                                          2. wildlife
                                                                                    3. Bale Compressor Factory New York EEUU
                                                                                      1. IN
                                                                                        1. energy
                                                                                          1. gas
                                                                                            1. coal ??
                                                                                            2. labour
                                                                                              1. male ??
                                                                                              2. capital
                                                                                                1. factory
                                                                                                  1. wood
                                                                                                    1. metal
                                                                                                  2. OUT
                                                                                                    1. Port Ship Cargo New York EEUU via merchant
                                                                                                  3. TRANS-ATLANTIC SHIPMENT
                                                                                                  4. IN
                                                                                                    1. OUT
                                                                                                    2. MANUFACTURING
                                                                                                      1. WOVEN COTTON

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • The grey cloth,woven cotton fabric in its loom-state, not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential. Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes.
                                                                                                        1. COTTON YARN
                                                                                                          1. COTTON SILVER
                                                                                                            1. LAP COTTON
                                                                                                              1. COTTON BALE

                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                • Cotton mills get the cotton shipped to them in large, 500 pound bales. When the cotton comes out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable matter
                                                                                                                1. TRANS-ATLANTIC SHIPMENT
                                                                                                                  1. TRANS-ATLANTIC SHIPMENT
                                                                                                                2. preparatory process
                                                                                                                  1. Bale opener and cleaning

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • When the cotton comes out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable matter. The bale is broken open using a machine with large spikes. It is called an Opener.In order to fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker, or similar machines. A picker looks similar to the carding machine and the cotton gin, but is slightly different. The cotton is fed into the machine and gets beaten with a beater bar, to loosen it up. It is fed through various rollers, which serve to remove the vegetable matter. The cotton, aided by fans, then collects on a screen and gets fed through more rollers till it emerges as a continuous soft fleecy sheet, known as a lap.
                                                                                                                    1. Scutching

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • Blending cotton form different bales.
                                                                                                                      1. scutching machine

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        • The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then striking it with iron or steel bars called beaters. The beaters, which turn very quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out. This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time a breeze is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber.
                                                                                                                        1. seeds
                                                                                                                          1. DISPOSAL
                                                                                                                            1. ?? Manchester Bolton Bury Canal
                                                                                                                              1. eutrophication ??
                                                                                                                          2. IMPACTS
                                                                                                                            1. lint in the air
                                                                                                                              1. IMPACTS
                                                                                                                                  1. human health
                                                                                                                                    1. dead
                                                                                                                                      1. asthma
                                                                                                                                      2. wildlife
                                                                                                                                        1. dead fish
                                                                                                                                1. WASTE
                                                                                                                                  1. 0.9 mineral
                                                                                                                                    1. 2.9 celluloide
                                                                                                                                      1. DISPOSAL
                                                                                                                                    2. opener machine

                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                      • The opener is a machine with large spikes to opend and brak up the cotton bale.
                                                                                                                                      1. picker

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • In order to fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker, or similar machines. The cotton is fed into the machine and gets beaten with a beater bar, to loosen it up. It is fed through various rollers, which serve to remove the vegetable matter. The cotton, aided by fans, then collects on a screen and gets fed through more rollers till it emerges as a continuous soft fleecy sheet, known as a lap.
                                                                                                                                        1. air fans
                                                                                                                                  2. Carding

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    • In the carding process, the fibres are separated and then assembled into a loose strand (sliver or tow) at the conclusion of this stage. The cotton comes off of the picking machine in laps, and is then taken to carding machines. The carders line up the fibres nicely to make them easier to spin. In a wider sense Carding can refer to these four processes: Willowing- loosening the fibres; Lapping- removing the dust to create a flat sheet or lap of cotton; Carding- combing the tangled lap into a thick rope of 1/2 in in diameter, a sliver; and Drawing- where a drawing frame combines 4 slivers into one- repeated for increased quality
                                                                                                                                    1. combing

                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                      • Combing is optional, but is used to remove the shorter fibres, creating a stronger yarn
                                                                                                                                      1. Drawing

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • Drawing is straightened the fibles by combining several cotton silvers. Each sliver will have thin and thick spots, and by combining several slivers together a more consistent size can be reached. Since combining several slivers produces a very thick rope of cotton fibres, directly after being combined the slivers are separated into rovings. These rovings (or slubbings) are then what are used in the spinning process.
                                                                                                                                        1. drawing machines

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • Drawing frame: Draws the strand out Slubbing Frame: adds twist, and winds on to bobbins Intermediate Frames: are used to repeat the slubbing process to produce a finer yarn. Roving frames: reduces to a finer thread, gives more twist, makes more regular and even in thickness, and winds on to a smaller tube
                                                                                                                                          1. IMPACTS
                                                                                                                                            1. ACCIDENTS
                                                                                                                                              1. machinery caughts
                                                                                                                                                1. limbs loss
                                                                                                                                            2. combing machine

                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                              • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Catalonia_Terrassa_mNATEC_Pentinadora.jpg
                                                                                                                                            3. carding machine

                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                              • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Catalonia_Terrassa_mNATEC_CardaObridora.jpg The carding machine consists mainly of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered in small teeth, and as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer (i.e. closer together). The cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver; a large rope of fibres.
                                                                                                                                              1. dust
                                                                                                                                                1. POLLUTION
                                                                                                                                            4. ISLINGTON MILL salford england
                                                                                                                                              1. OUT
                                                                                                                                                1. capital
                                                                                                                                                  1. expenditure
                                                                                                                                                  2. WASTE
                                                                                                                                                    1. POLLUTION
                                                                                                                                                      1. AIR
                                                                                                                                                        1. fossil CO2
                                                                                                                                                          1. CO carbonmonoxide
                                                                                                                                                            1. CH4 Methane
                                                                                                                                                              1. NOx (NO2) Nitrogen Oxides
                                                                                                                                                                1. SOX (SO2) Sulfur Oxides
                                                                                                                                                                  1. particulates
                                                                                                                                                                    1. non-methane VOC
                                                                                                                                                                    2. WATER
                                                                                                                                                                      1. BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
                                                                                                                                                                        1. COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
                                                                                                                                                                          1. PO43- Phosphates
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Suspended Matter
                                                                                                                                                                              1. NH3 Ammonia
                                                                                                                                                                              2. SOIL
                                                                                                                                                                              3. SOLIDS
                                                                                                                                                                                1. HUMAN WASTE
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. urine
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. faeces
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                    3. ORGANIC WASTE
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. cotton
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. river irwell
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. oil
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                        3. CONTRUCTION WASTE
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. bricks
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. cement
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. iron
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. RUBISH / LITTER
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. food scraps?
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. fabric?
                                                                                                                                                                                                3. IMPACTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. WILDLIFE
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. toxicity
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. illnesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. death rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. HUMAN HEALTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. toxicity
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. illnesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. death rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. CLIMATE CHANGE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. temperatures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. rising sea levels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. storm surges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. floods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. LAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. toxicity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. acidification
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. natural land ocupation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. urban land ocupation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. agricultural land ocupation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. WATER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. eutrofication
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. acidification
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Ammonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. suspended matter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. BOD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. COD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. AIR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. ozone deplition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. photochemical oxidant formation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. particulate matter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. ionising radiation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. raw materials
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. cotton
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. woman ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 12h day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 3c/h = £1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. man ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 16h day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. 5c/h = £2h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. children ??

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Factory owners employed children because they were cheap, did not complain, had nimble fingers, and could crawl about under machines. Small girls worked in mills as 'piecers'. They mended broken threads. 'Scavengers' crawled beneath clattering machines to pick up scraps of cotton. They risked getting caught in the machinery, losing hair or arms.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. 12h day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. 1c/h = 50p/h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. coal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. agecroft coliery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. ??man
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. hours/day?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. how much paid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. gas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. gas works ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. river irewell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. iron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. wood merchant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. forest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. capital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. OUT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. capital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. rail works
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. OUT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. pipes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. gas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. gas works ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. OUT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. capital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. expenditure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. pipes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. coal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. pendleton colliery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. how many man?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. raw materials ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. iron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. capital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. capital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. infraestructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. factory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. bricks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. cement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. quary ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. iron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. iron works
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. ore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. iron mine ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. wood merchant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. forest ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. communications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. railway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. canal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. Spinning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. mule spinning

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/Textile-Spinning_room.jpg In mule spinning the roving is pulled off a bobbin and fed through some rollers, which are feeding at several different speeds.This thins the roving at a consistent rate. If the roving was not a consistent size, then this step could cause a break in the yarn, or could jam the machine. The yarn is twisted through the spinning of the bobbin as the carriage moves out, and is rolled onto a cop as the carriage returns.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. plying

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Plying is done by pulling yarn from two or more bobbins and twisting it together, in the opposite direction that in which it was spun. Depending on the weight desired, the cotton may or may not be plied, and the number of strands twisted together varies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. gassing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Gassing is the process of passing yarn, as distinct from fabric very rapidly through a series of Bunsen gas flames in a gassing frame, in order to burn off the projecting fibres and make the thread round and smooth and also brighter. Only the better qualities of yarn are gassed, such as that used for voiles, poplins, venetians, gabardines, many Egyptian qualities, etc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. gassing frame
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. ACCIDENTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. fires
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. death
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. CO inhalation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. asthma ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. checking

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • This is the process where each of the bobbins is rewound to give a tighter bobbin.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. TEXTILE MACHINE WORKS Platt Brothers & Co Ltd Oldham, England
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. ISLINGTON MILL salford england
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. weaving process

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The weaving process uses a loom. The lengthway threads are known as the warp, and the cross way threads are known as the weft. The warp which must be strong needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle, that carries the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. winding

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • After being spun and plied, the cotton thread is taken to a warping room where the winding machine takes the required length of yarn and winds it onto warpers bobbins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. warping

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Racks of bobbins are set up to hold the thread while it is rolled onto the warp bar of a loom. Because the thread is fine, often three of these would be combined to get the desired thread count.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. sizing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slasher sizing machine needed for strengthening the warp by adding starch to reduce breakage of the yarns during the weaving process.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. starch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. potato ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Slasher machine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. drawing in

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The process of drawing each end of the warp separately through the dents of the reed and the eyes of the healds, in the order indicated by the draft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. pirning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. weaving

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • At this point, the thread is woven with a loom machine.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. loom

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Lancashire Loom was a semi-automatic power loom invented by James Bullough and William Kenworthy in 1842. It was the mainstay of the Lancashire cotton industry for a century.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. 1 man/4 looms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. LOOM FACTORY Howard & Bullough Works Accrington, England
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Pirn winding frame
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. warping mach

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Catalonia_Terrassa_mNATEC_Ordidor.jpg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. winding machine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. TREATED COTTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. chemical treatements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. desizing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Depending on the size that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid and then rinsed, or enzymes may be used to break down the size.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. acid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. river irwell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. IMPACTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. human health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. inhalation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. skin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. burns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. river discharge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. wildlife
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. toxicity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. ilnesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. deaths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. scouring

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Scouring, is a chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural wax and non-fibrous impurities (e.g. the remains of seed fragments) from the fibres and any added soiling or dirt. Scouring is usually carried in iron vessels called kiers. The fabric is boiled in an alkali, which forms a soap with free fatty acids (saponification). A kier is usually enclosed, so the solution of sodium hydroxide can be boiled under pressure, excluding oxygen which would degrade the cellulose in the fibre. If the appropriate reagents are used, scouring will also remove size from the fabric although desizing often precedes scouring and is considered to be a separate process known as fabric preparation. Preparation and scouring are prerequisites to most of the other finishing processes. At this stage even the most naturally white cotton fibres are yellowish, and bleaching, the next process, is required.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. iron vassels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. iron foundry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. river irwell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. alkali
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. bleaching

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Whitening by oxidation Bleaching whitens the cotton by removing natural coloration and remaining trace impurities from it; the degree of bleaching necessary is determined by the required whiteness and absorbency. Cotton being a vegetable fibre will be bleached using an oxidizing agent, such as dilute sodium hypochlorite or dilute hydrogen peroxide.   If the fabric is to be dyed a deep shade, then lower levels of bleaching are acceptable, for example. However, for white bed sheetings and medical applications, the highest levels of whiteness and absorbency are essential.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. mercerising

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The fabric is treated with caustic soda solution to cause swelling of the fibres. This results in improved lustre, strength and dye affinity. Cotton is mercerized under tension, and all alkali must be washed out before the tension is released or shrinkage will take place. Mercerizing can take place directly on grey cloth, or after bleaching. Many other chemical treatments may be applied to cotton fabrics to produce low flammability, crease resist and other special effects but four important non-chemical finishing treatments are:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. caustic soda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. NaOH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. salt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. nantwich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. mines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. ash
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. wood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. forest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. river irwell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. oxidising agent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Hazard_O.svg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. sodium hypochloride
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. NaClO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. or hydrogen peroxide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. H2 O2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. river discharged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. human health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. inhalation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. river discharge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. wildlife
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. 2 women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5. non - chemical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. singeing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce smoothness. The fabric passes over brushes to raise the fibres, then passes over a plate heated by gas flames.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. raising

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibres, thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. calendering

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Calendering is the third important mechanical process, in which the fabric is passed between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effects depending on roller surface properties and relative speeds.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. shrinking

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Finally, mechanical shrinking (sometimes referred to as sanforizing), whereby the fabric is forced to shrink width and/or lengthwise, creates a fabric in which any residual tendency to shrink after subsequent laundering is minimal. Sanforization is a process of treatment used for cotton fabrics mainly and most textiles made from natural or chemical fibres, patented by Sanford Lockwood Cluett (1874–1968) in 1930.[1] It is a method of stretching, shrinking and fixing the woven cloth in both length and width before cutting and producing, to reduce the shrinkage which would otherwise occur after washing. The cloth is continually fed into the sanforizing machine and therein moistened with either water or steam. A rotating cylinder presses a rubber sleeve against another, heated, rotating cylinder. Thereby the sleeve briefly gets compressed and laterally expanded, afterwards relaxing to its normal thickness. The cloth to be treated is transported between rubber sleeve and heated cylinder and is forced to follow this brief compression and lateral expansion, and relaxation. It thus gets shrunk. The greater the pressure applied to the rubber sleeve, the less the shrinking afterwards. The process may be repeated. The aim of the process is a cloth which does not shrink significantly during clothes production by cutting, ironing, sewing or, especially, by wearing and washing the finished clothes. Cloth and articles made from it may be labelled to have a specific shrink-proof value (if pre-shrunk), e.g., of under 1%.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. machine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 2 women ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. machine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 1 man
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. coal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. machine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. 1 woman ?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4. machine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. 1 woman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. gas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. IMPACTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. fires
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. IRWELL BLEACH WORKS salford, england
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. OUT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. WASTE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. POLLUTION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. AIR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. WATER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. LAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. SOLIDS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. IMPACTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. WILDLIFE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. toxicity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. illnesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. deaths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. HUMAN HEALTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. CLIMATE CHANGE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. LAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. WATER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. AIR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. capital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. expenditure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. capital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. infraestructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. communications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. factory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. raw materials
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. gas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. acid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. alkali
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. sodium hypocloride
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. caustic soda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. man
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. h/day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. £/h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. woman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. coal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. OUT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. BLUE DYED COTTON FABRIC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Dying
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Dye
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Roberts, Dale & Company
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. mordant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. dye merchant ROBERTS, DALE & CO manchester, england
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Dye - Madder Root
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. plantation france
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Mordant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. aniline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. coal tar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. COAL TAR WORKS salford, england
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. fermented urine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. alum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. mineral salts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. ?? salt mine nantwich england
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. vats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. iron fundry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. ??
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. river irwell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. OUT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. ADELPHI DYE WORKS salford, england
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. OUT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5. PACKAGING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. TRANSPORT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. RETAILER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. OUT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. USE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Show full summary Hide full summary

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