Ch 8 overview: Crisis the theory

Lize Vorster
Mind Map by Lize Vorster, updated more than 1 year ago
Lize Vorster
Created by Lize Vorster almost 6 years ago


postgraduate certificate Pastoral role (Chapter summaries) Mind Map on Ch 8 overview: Crisis the theory, created by Lize Vorster on 10/11/2014.

Resource summary

Ch 8 overview: Crisis the theory
1 Introduction
1.1 State of disequilibrium
1.1.1 Unexpected crises overwhelm traditional coping skills and can result in dysfunctional behaviour
1.1.2 Intense/irrational fears
1.1.3 high levels of anxiety
1.2 In our country and time, events of acute stress and crisis have become very prevalent
1.3 Timely crisis intervention can lead to early resolution and prevent acute or post-traumatic stress disorders
1.4 Crisis makes you feel out of control, disrupts flow of everyday life and takes individual by surprise
2 Clarification of concepts
2.1 Crisis
2.1.1 highly emotional state of psychological turmoil in which the person feels unable to cope
2.1.2 feelings of helplessness lead to bewilderment, distress, despair and panic
2.1.3 the perception of the person that defines a crisis, not the event itself
2.1.4 Overwhelmed by emotional panic, rational thought processes and ability to think through the problem temporarily lost
2.1.5 Crisis = normal reaction to abnormal stressor
2.1.6 Resolved between 6 weeks - 7 months
2.1.7 Not only negative - provides opportunity to grow because of brief period of transition with the potential for heightened maturity and growth
2.1.8 effects can be devastating or growth-producing bringing about positive change
2.2 Trauma
2.2.1 unpleasant psychological or physical experience
2.2.2 which may have detrimental influence on the development of the personality of a person
2.3 Grief
2.3.1 crisis reaction
2.3.2 5 related reactions somatic distress preoccupation with an image guilt hostile reactions loss of conduct
2.4 Stress
2.4.1 stressors can be positive or negative events
2.4.2 person's reaction to stressors depend on his/her interpretation and perception of those stressors
2.5 Acute stress disorder
2.5.1 development of characteristics such as anxiety or dissociative symptoms with 1 month of exposure to extremely traumatic stressor.
2.5.2 decrease in emotional responsiveness, difficult to experience pleasure, feel guilty about pursuing their usual life tasks
2.6 Post-traumatic stress disorder
2.6.1 person has been exposed to death or threatened with death/serious injury to his/her physical integrity
2.6.2 fear/horror + symptoms persistently recurrent & intrusive recollection of event distressing dreams of event reliving experience through flashbacks Intense psychological distress on cues that resemble aspect of event
2.6.3 specifiers Acute: less than 3 months Chronic: 3 months + Delayed onset: 6 months between event and symptoms
3 Risk factors in traumatisation
3.1 Pre-trauma risk factors
3.1.1 Gender (women 2x as likely)
3.1.2 Age: under 25
3.1.3 Education (without tertiary education)
3.1.4 Adversity during adolescence
3.1.5 Previous exposure to trauma in adolescence
3.1.6 Prior psychiatric disorders & family history
3.1.7 ADD/ADHD
3.1.8 Adverse life events (job loss, divorce, financial crisis)
3.1.9 Physical health problems
3.2 Trauma risk factors
3.2.1 Severity of trauma
3.2.2 Duration of trauma
3.2.3 Involvement in atrocities
3.2.4 Nature of trauma
3.3 Post-traumatic risk factors
3.3.1 Poor social support
3.3.2 Profound traumatic reaction
3.4 Satisfaction of essential needs
3.4.1 basic needs: sense of physical/psychological wellbeing, supportive network, sense of identity & belonging
3.4.2 7 basic attachements Food/oxygen/physical supplies Self-identity 1 person in close, supportive relationship 1 group accepting member one role we feel self-respect Financial security system of meaning/values
3.5 Loss of support
3.5.1 Person in crisis suffers sudden loss of psychosocial and other forms of support
3.5.2 familiar source of support dissappears without warning
3.5.3 Threat of losing something considered essential/important
4 Characteristics of a crisis
4.1 Crises precipitated by specific identifiable events that become too much for the person's usual problem-soving skills
4.2 Crises are normal - all feel overwhelmed at one time or another
4.3 Crises are personal - not the same for everyone
4.4 Crises are too intense to be long-standing or chronic - have to resolve
4.5 resolution may be adaptive (develop new problem-solving skills) or maladaptive
5 difference between hazardous event and precipitating event
5.1 Hazardous:
5.1.1 Initial shock/internal rise of tension sets in motion events culminating in crisis
5.1.2 event may be anticipated or not
5.1.3 Intervener should identify the hazardous event
5.1.4 Ask "when did they began to feel so upset
5.1.5 helping them sort out events creates some kind of order in the chaos
5.2 Precipating event
5.2.1 last straw that broke the camel's back
5.2.2 Not easy to identify
5.2.3 last thing that sent them into crisis
5.2.4 Ask: what happened today that made you come for help?
6 Categories of crises
6.1 Situational crises: characteristics
6.1.1 Sudden/unexpected onset
6.1.2 Emergency quality (quick assessment + appropriate action)
6.1.3 Potential impact on entire communities
6.1.4 Danger and opportunity for growth: call for new coping methods
6.2 Developmental crises
6.2.1 Assumptions underlying dev approach to life crises Life = continuuous growth and change Development = series of transitions/stages with certain tasks each stage unique but themes from earlier stages revisited dev crisis events be understood in the context of person's individual personal history Drisis = extreme version of a transition
6.2.2 Possible crises events associated with dev stages Central conflict to each dev stage Successful resolution of one stage is the foundation for successful progression to the next adolescent crises: socialisation relationship with parents Friendships Suceess/failure in school Life stages Adolescence: identity formation young adulthood (18-34) - preoccupation with intimacy, parenthood and establishing a career Middle adulthood - rework previous dev themes
6.2.3 Intro embedded in maturational processes emotional crises resulting from attempts to deal with interpersonal situation unsuccessful previous developmental tasks (Erikson)
7 Stages of crisis development
7.1 Phase 1
7.1.1 initial reaction to unavoidable and insurmountable problem
7.1.2 Usual strategies failed to resolve diffculties
7.1.3 Very brief
7.1.4 Shock, disbelief, overwhelmed, bewildered, confusion
7.2 Phase 2
7.2.1 renewed effort to resolve crisis
7.2.2 Failure creates urgency to relieve pressure
7.2.3 4 categories of defence mechanisms Distortion/denial/repression restricted viewpoints & unbending attitudes Alcohol/drugs to avoid problem psychological difficulties converted to physical problems
7.3 Phase 3
7.3.1 Anxiety levels rise & resources exhausted
7.3.2 withdrawal/stop trying to resolve problem
7.3.3 Voluntary: suicide (serious attempts)
7.3.4 Involuntary: nervous breakdown
7.4 Phase 4
7.4.1 Adjusting to changed situation
7.4.2 Factors influencing outcome Hazardous circumstances person's emotional response/ previous experience/ personality/ social support
8 Crisis resolution tasks
8.1 Physical survival
8.2 Expression of feelings
8.3 Cognitive mastery
8.4 Behavioural/interpersonal adjustments
9 Types of treatment methods
9.1 Early interventions
9.1.1 frontline treatments
9.1.2 psychological debriefing and cognitive mastery
9.2 Global therapies
9.2.1 psycho-education on trauma and ptsd
9.2.2 Peer counselling
9.3 Individual crisis counselling
9.3.1 relaxation, eye movement desensitisation, thought field therapy
9.4 Family and marital counselling
9.4.1 combination with other forms of counselling/therapy
9.5 Group therapies/counselling
9.5.1 shared experiences & recognising their human fears
9.6 Social rehabilitative therapies
9.6.1 Education, supported housing, self-care, social skills training, supported employment techniques
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