The description of speech sounds

juan david hernandez
Mind Map by juan david hernandez, updated more than 1 year ago
juan david hernandez
Created by juan david hernandez over 3 years ago


We can find some descriptions of speech sounds.

Resource summary

The description of speech sounds
  1. Divided in 2 categories
    1. Purely phonetic features
      1. Loudness
        1. It can distinguish
          1. meaning
          2. It is a component of stress, duration and sound together with pitch
            1. Distinction between
              1. Noun record
                1. Verb record
            2. Air-stream mechanism
              1. Speech sounds
                1. Made with some movement of air
                  1. Air is pushed up from the lungs through the trachea
                    1. And...
                      1. Leaves the body through the mouth or nose
                        1. There are three important aspects
                          1. 1.Egressive gluttalic
                            1. Air pushed up from the space between the vocal folds
                              1. "Glotis"
                                1. The sound called: Ejective
                            2. 2.Ingressive gluttalic
                              1. When the glottis makes the air move inwards
                                1. This sound is called: Implosive
                              2. Ingressive velaric
                                1. Air sucked like result of movements against the back part of the root velum
                                  1. This sound is called: Click
                  2. Tone of voice
                    1. Produced by
                      1. Patterns of vibration of the vocal sounds
                        1. It causes different
                          1. Sound waves
                            1. It doesn´t result in the same sound quality
                      2. There are differences between
                        1. Sound quality
                          1. Characterised by the distinctive
                            1. Example
                              1. See
                                1. Same:
                                  1. _Loudness
                                    1. Pitch
                                      1. Duration
                          2. Tone of voice
                            1. Difference in "Colour" (sound produced with purely phonetics distinctive)
                              1. This is
                                1. Called as
                                  1. Voice quality
                                    1. Tonal quality
                                      1. Timbre
                              2. With tone of voice you can
                                1. Characterise the voice of a speaker
                                  1. Male
                                    1. Female
                                      1. Harsh
                                        1. Creaky or Thin
                                          1. Murmured
                                            1. Breathy
                                        2. Pitch
                                          1. The frequtency of the vibration of the vocal folds
                                            1. The taster the vocal folds vibrate, the higher the pitch
                                            2. It is a component of stress and it shapes the intonation of connected speech
                                              1. English belong to the non-tone languages
                                                1. The meaning of the word can be changed varying the pitch of one of its sounds
                                              2. Duration and length
                                                1. Time during which a sound is "sustained" (Restricted to "phonology")
                                                  1. How is perceived the sound for listener?
                                                    1. Example
                                                      1. Fool (Long u)
                                                        1. Full (short u)
                                                          1. You can distinguish meaning
                                                            1. Linguist count length among distinctive features
                                                              1. Differences in length is almost always acompanied by a difference in sound quality
                                                      2. Used for the actually time taken in the articulation of a sound (restricted to "Phonetics")
                                                        1. Example:
                                                          1. See
                                                            1. Can be held for different spans of time depending of the speaker
                                                              1. Considered a long sound
                                                                1. Is a Phonetic concept for its function of the sound, and quality remains the same
                                                    2. 1.Describe physical aspects (sounds should be as precisely as possible)
                                                      1. Relevant only for phonetics. it is not relevance for phonology
                                                      2. 2.Explain the difference between final sounds in words pairs like:
                                                        1. Relevance in phonetics and phonology
                                                          1. Cab / cap / serve / surf
                                                            1. You can distinguish meaning called distinctive or relevant features
                                                        2. Articulation Lenis
                                                          1. It is the force with which the air currents is pushed up
                                                            1. The sounds:
                                                              1. Are made with a weak breath
                                                            2. Articulation fortis
                                                              1. Sound without a coice are made with sounds of greater strength
                                                              2. Voiceless and coicelessness: The state of the glottis
                                                                1. Glottis
                                                                  1. The space between the vocal cords
                                                                    1. Voice
                                                                      1. When the glottis is norrow is to say that the vocal cords are together is passage of air vibrates the vocal cords
                                                                        1. Example
                                                                          1. Word zeal
                                                                            1. If you cover your ears you can feel the vibration
                                                                      2. Deat
                                                                        1. When glottis is open, that is when the vocal cords are separated the passage of air does not vibrate the vocal cords
                                                                          1. Example
                                                                            1. The word seal
                                                                              1. Sounds are made that have no voice
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