Ethnicity - External factors that affect differential educational achievement

Leanna V
Mind Map by Leanna V, updated more than 1 year ago
Leanna V
Created by Leanna V over 6 years ago


Mind Map on Ethnicity - External factors that affect differential educational achievement, created by Leanna V on 10/23/2014.

Resource summary

Ethnicity - External factors that affect differential educational achievement
  1. Cultural Deprivation
    1. Intellectual and linguistic skills
      1. Children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences - low equipped for school. BEREITER &ENGELMANN consider the language spoken by black Americans to be inadequate for educational success as it is ungrammatical and disjointed. Similarly, BOWKER suggests that their lack of standard English is a barrier to progress.
        1. CONTRARY to that THE SWANN REPORT found that language was not a major factor in under achievement and MIRZA found that Indian pupils do well despite English not being their home language.
      2. Attitudes and values
        1. Major cause of failure for black children is the lack of motivation. Most kids are socialised in a subculture which teaches them ambition and competitiveness, whereas some black kids are socialised into a subculture that teaches them fatalism and present-time orientation where they do not value education and are therefore more likely to underachieve.
        2. Family structure and parental support
          1. Dysfunctional family structure = failure to socialise children adequately. MOYNIHAN argues that many black families are headed by a mum/lack a father figure. Inadequately socialised children from unstable families underachieve and become inadequate parents themselves. MURRAY (NEW RIGHT) agrees. SCRUTON sees low achievement levels of some ethnic minorities as a result of failing to embrace the British mainstream culture.
            1. PRYCE - Comparison between Black and Asian pupils.
              1. He claims that Asian pupils are higher achievers because their culture is ore resistant to racism and so they have more self-worth, whereas Afro Caribbean culture is less resistant to racism and herefore more Black pupils have low self-esteem, leading them to underachieve. He also argues that the difference between cultures is due to the impact of colonialism. Black people experienced slavery which resulted in a loss of family system, religion and real culture. Asians were not as heavily impacted and therefore able to retain their languages, religions and family structures.
            2. DRIVER & BALLARD said that Asian parents have a more positive attitude to education and higher aspirations for their children, so they tend to be more supportive. LUPTON argues that authority in Asian families were similar to authority in school. This means parents were more likely to support school behaviour policies. HOWEVER, KHAN sees Asian families as 'stress ridden', meaning the children are bound by tradition and control, especially girls.
              1. White W/C children have lower levels of aspirations and achievement which could be a result of a lack of parental support. LUPTON's study of 4 mainly working-class schools found that poorer levels of behaviour and discipline were found in the white W/C school. Teachers blamed this on the low levels of parental support and the parents' negative attitude. Ethnic minority parents mostly saw education as 'a way up'. EVANS argues that lower levels of success within W/C students is due to the students acting out because of the brutal street culture they have to deal with.
              2. COMPENSATORY EDUCATION - to overcome cultural deprivation.
                1. DRIVER criticises the theory because it ignores the positive effects of ethnicity e.g Black single mums provides daughters with the image of an independent woman and this is possibly why Black girls tend to be more successful in education than Black boys. LAWRENCE contradicts PRYCE and says that Black pupils underachieve due to racism. KEDDIE explains the theory as victim blaming. Schools favour the white culture, putting the ethnic minorities at a disadvantage.
                  1. Critics are against compensatory education because they see it as an attempt to impose the white culture on children. Alternatives include: MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION, a policy that recognises/values minority cultures and includes them in the curriculum. ANTI-RACIST education, a policy that challenges prejudice/discrimination that exists in schools/society.
                2. Material Deprivation & Class
                  1. Ethnic minorities are more likely to face poverty and substandard housing. FLAHERTY found that unemployment is 3x higher for African/Bangladeshi/Pakastani people. 15% of ethnic minorities live in overcrowded conditions compared to 2% white. Ethnic minorities are more likely to do shift work. Bangladeshi/Pakistani women are more likely to be low paid house workers.
                    1. These inequalities reflect the differences in ethnic groups who are eligible for school meals - Bangladeshi being the most eligible and white British being the least. Indian and white pupils generally have a higher social class which correlates to their educational achievement. They do better than the Bangladeshi/Pakistani pupils. Support for this comes from the SWANN REPORT - social class accounts for 50% of the difference in achievement between ethnic groups.
                      1. GILLBORN & MIRZA argue that social class factors do not override ethnicity because e.g. even middle class black pupils do comparatively poorly in their GCSEs.
                      2. Racism
                        1. REX shows that racial discrimination can lead to social exclusion and worsens poverty for ethnic minorities. For housing: minorities are more likely to be forced into substandard accommodation than white people. For employment: NOON carried out an experiment sending the same job applications with 2 different names 'Evans' and 'Patel'. Companies were more encouraging to the 'white' candidate. Due to the parents facing poverty and unemployment as a result of racism, their children's educational success is likely to suffer.
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