Ethnicity - External factors
that affect differential
Intellectual and linguistic skills
Children from low-income black families
lack intellectual stimulation and enriching
experiences - low equipped for school.
BEREITER &ENGELMANN consider the
language spoken by black Americans to be
inadequate for educational success as it is
ungrammatical and disjointed. Similarly,
BOWKER suggests that their lack of
standard English is a barrier to progress.
CONTRARY to that THE SWANN REPORT found that
language was not a major factor in under
achievement and MIRZA found that Indian pupils do
well despite English not being their home language.
Attitudes and values
Major cause of failure for black children is the lack of
motivation. Most kids are socialised in a subculture which
teaches them ambition and competitiveness, whereas some
black kids are socialised into a subculture that teaches them
fatalism and present-time orientation where they do not value
education and are therefore more likely to underachieve.
Family structure and parental support
Dysfunctional family structure = failure to socialise children adequately.
MOYNIHAN argues that many black families are headed by a mum/lack a
father figure. Inadequately socialised children from unstable families
underachieve and become inadequate parents themselves. MURRAY (NEW
RIGHT) agrees. SCRUTON sees low achievement levels of some ethnic
minorities as a result of failing to embrace the British mainstream culture.
PRYCE - Comparison between Black and Asian pupils.
He claims that Asian pupils are higher achievers because their culture is
ore resistant to racism and so they have more self-worth, whereas Afro
Caribbean culture is less resistant to racism and herefore more Black
pupils have low self-esteem, leading them to underachieve. He also argues
that the difference between cultures is due to the impact of colonialism.
Black people experienced slavery which resulted in a loss of family
system, religion and real culture. Asians were not as heavily impacted and
therefore able to retain their languages, religions and family structures.
DRIVER & BALLARD said that Asian parents have a more
positive attitude to education and higher aspirations for
their children, so they tend to be more supportive.
LUPTON argues that authority in Asian families were
similar to authority in school. This means parents were
more likely to support school behaviour policies.
HOWEVER, KHAN sees Asian families as 'stress ridden',
meaning the children are bound by tradition and
control, especially girls.
White W/C children have lower levels of aspirations
and achievement which could be a result of a lack of
parental support. LUPTON's study of 4 mainly
working-class schools found that poorer levels of
behaviour and discipline were found in the white
W/C school. Teachers blamed this on the low levels
of parental support and the parents' negative
attitude. Ethnic minority parents mostly saw
education as 'a way up'. EVANS argues that lower
levels of success within W/C students is due to the
students acting out because of the brutal street
culture they have to deal with.
COMPENSATORY EDUCATION - to overcome cultural deprivation.
DRIVER criticises the theory because it ignores the
positive effects of ethnicity e.g Black single mums
provides daughters with the image of an independent
woman and this is possibly why Black girls tend to be
more successful in education than Black boys.
LAWRENCE contradicts PRYCE and says that Black pupils
underachieve due to racism. KEDDIE explains the theory
as victim blaming. Schools favour the white culture,
putting the ethnic minorities at a disadvantage.
Critics are against compensatory education because
they see it as an attempt to impose the white culture
on children. Alternatives include: MULTICULTURAL
EDUCATION, a policy that recognises/values minority
cultures and includes them in the curriculum.
ANTI-RACIST education, a policy that challenges
prejudice/discrimination that exists in schools/society.
Material Deprivation & Class
Ethnic minorities are more likely to face poverty and substandard
housing. FLAHERTY found that unemployment is 3x higher for
African/Bangladeshi/Pakastani people. 15% of ethnic minorities
live in overcrowded conditions compared to 2% white. Ethnic
minorities are more likely to do shift work. Bangladeshi/Pakistani
women are more likely to be low paid house workers.
These inequalities reflect the differences in ethnic groups
who are eligible for school meals - Bangladeshi being the
most eligible and white British being the least. Indian and
white pupils generally have a higher social class which
correlates to their educational achievement. They do better
than the Bangladeshi/Pakistani pupils. Support for this comes
from the SWANN REPORT - social class accounts for 50% of
the difference in achievement between ethnic groups.
GILLBORN & MIRZA argue that social class factors do
not override ethnicity because e.g. even middle class
black pupils do comparatively poorly in their GCSEs.
REX shows that racial discrimination can lead to social exclusion and worsens
poverty for ethnic minorities. For housing: minorities are more likely to be
forced into substandard accommodation than white people. For employment:
NOON carried out an experiment sending the same job applications with 2
different names 'Evans' and 'Patel'. Companies were more encouraging to the
'white' candidate. Due to the parents facing poverty and unemployment as a
result of racism, their children's educational success is likely to suffer.
SISTEMAS NERVIOSO Y REPRODUCTIVO El sistema nervioso se relaciona con el sistema reproductivo, ya que se recibe la estimulación externa e interna y envía información para preparar al organismo para la reproducción, así las hormonas y los neurotransmisores