Animal and Plant Responses

Elena Rose
Mind Map by Elena Rose, updated more than 1 year ago
Elena Rose
Created by Elena Rose over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Animal and Plant Responses, created by Elena Rose on 11/05/2014.
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Animal and Plant Responses
1 Mating
1.1 K Strategy
1.1.1 Production of a small number of offspring with large amount of energy from parents in raising the offspring. Higher risk to parents offset by lower success rate
1.2 R Stategy
1.2.1 Production of a large number of offspring with little energy spent raising offspring by parents. Lower risk to parents but lower success rate
1.3 Courtship behaviours
1.3.1 Series of repeated ritualistic activities and response between a male and female
1.3.2 Often initiated by male
1.3.3 Courtship behaviours ensures mates are of the same species to keep gene pool isolated
1.3.4 Allows for sexual selection of males by females
1.3.4.1 Results in natural selection. Females choose males with best adaptions
1.4 Mating Systems
1.4.1 Monogamy
1.4.1.1 Male and Female form a pair bond. Both usually assist in rearing the offspring. Common in birds.
1.4.2 Polygyny
1.4.2.1 One male competes for and breeds with many females. Males have avoid to be bigger, stronger, and show. Do not usually assist in rearing the offspring. Common in herd animals
1.4.3 Polyandry
1.4.3.1 One female breeds with many males. Males raise offspring. Rare but common in colonial insects
1.4.4 Co-operative breeding
1.4.4.1 numerous males-females partnerships occurring in kin groups
1.4.5 Sychnronised Spawning
1.4.5.1 Females and males simultaneously release gametes. Often in response to environmental cues. Fertilisation is external.
2 Hierachies
2.1 Dominant Hierarchy (Linear)
2.1.1 Individuals ranked from highest to lowest. Each animal dominant to those ranked below it, and those below submissive to those ranked higher. Best known is social mammals. Direct conflict is rare. Temporary shifts in hierarchy can occur
2.2 Complex Hierarchy
2.2.1 Alpha individual is supported by other individuals in the control of the group. Ranking determines access to food, water and mates. Ranking is determined by size, strength, sex.
3 Territories
3.1 Benefit to group must outweigh the energy costs of defending the territory
3.2 Set up by an individual, breeding pair or group
3.3 Has defined boundaries
3.3.1 Defended from members of the same species
3.3.2 Boundary markings warn against accidental intrusion by members of the same species
3.4 Advantages
3.4.1 Provides a safe place to court, mate and rear young
3.4.2 Spreading out reduces disease and parasites
3.4.3 Usually will have enough food
3.4.4 Know the location of recourses within it
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