Human Reproduction (IGCSE Biology)

Description

Reproduction in humans (male & female), puberty, and the urinogenital systems (male & female)
Emily Woods
Mind Map by Emily Woods, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Woods
Created by Emily Woods about 8 years ago
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Resource summary

Human Reproduction (IGCSE Biology)
  1. Male reproductive system
    1. Roles
      1. Produce male gametes, Spermatozoa (Sperm for short)
        1. Produced in testes
        2. Deliver gametes to the 'site' of fertilisation
        3. Urogenital system
          1. Merged urinary and reproductive system in males (Ureter & Bladder)
            1. Penis becomes erect when spaces in structure fill with blood
              1. Sperm duct (vas deferens)
                1. Carries sperm from testis to urethra
                2. Prostate gland
                  1. Helps produce seminal fluid (makes up 99.5% of semen, sperm make up the other 0.5%)
                  2. Urethra
                    1. Carries semen from sperm duct to tip of penis
                    2. Testis/Testicle
                      1. Made up of many coiled tubes (like balls of wool which produce sperm; cells between tubes produce testosterone)
                    3. Hormones
                      1. Pituitary gland
                        1. Produces hormones which affect other (endocrine) organs
                          1. (Endocrine= glands which secrete hormones or other products directly into the blood)
                          2. One pituitary hormone stimulates the testes to produce testosterone
                            1. Testosterone circulates in blood & stimulates secondary sex characteristics (characteristics that appear during puberty)
                              1. Facial hair develops, hair develops on chest, under armpits & pubic region
                                1. Chest broadens, muscles become larger
                                  1. Voice becomes deeper (larynx /voicebox changes in shape)
                                    1. Testes are stimulated to begin production of sperm
                                      1. Penis becomes larger, scrotum expands to contain larger testes
                                  2. Behaviour
                                    1. Boys become more aggressive & territorial & attracted to girls
                                    2. (Chemical messengers which are produced by glands to alter the activity of one or more specific target organs)
                                    3. Male gametes (sperm)
                                      1. Smaller than ova (female gametes)
                                        1. Produced in huge numbers (300 000 000 per ejaculation)
                                          1. Mobile- can swim by beating the flagellum (tail)
                                            1. Fertilises female gamete (ovum)
                                          2. Female reproductive system
                                            1. Roles
                                              1. Produce female gametes, Ovum (Ova as plural)
                                                1. Recieve male gametes (spermatozoa) for fertilisation
                                                  1. Provides a 'site' for fertilisation & for development of zygote (cell that forms when a sperm fertilises an egg )
                                                  2. Female gametes (ova)
                                                    1. Produced one at a time (once monthly) by the two ovaries
                                                      1. Ovum travels along oviduct (Fallopian tube) towards the uterus
                                                        1. Fertilised whilst in oviduct/Fallopian tube
                                                          1. Ectopic pregnancy
                                                            1. When fertilised ovum is implanted in fallopian tube (instead of traveling through the tube and implanting in the uterus)
                                                          2. Zygote grows & develops into baby in uterus
                                                          3. Much larger than male gametes (sperm)
                                                            1. Do not move, but have large food store
                                                            2. Urogenital system
                                                              1. Urinary system
                                                                1. Bladder (pushed to one side)
                                                                  1. Ureter
                                                                  2. Oviduct/Fallopian tube
                                                                    1. Carries ovum to uterus
                                                                      1. Fertilisation usually occurs in first third of oviduct
                                                                      2. Uterus/womb
                                                                        1. Where fetus develops
                                                                          1. During pregnancy, uterus increases in volume from 10cm3 to 5dm3 (3 = cubed)
                                                                          2. Funnel of oviduct
                                                                            1. Collects ovum released from ovary at ovulation
                                                                            2. Ovary
                                                                              1. Contains follicles which develop the ova
                                                                                1. Produces oestrogen and progesterone
                                                                                2. Muscular wall of uterus
                                                                                  1. Lining of uterus
                                                                                    1. Cervix (neck of uterus)
                                                                                      1. Opening of vagina
                                                                                        1. Vagina/birth canal
                                                                                          1. Recieves penis during sexual intercourse
                                                                                            1. 'Way out' for baby at birth
                                                                                          2. Hormones
                                                                                            1. Pituitary gland
                                                                                              1. Produces hormones which affect other (endocrine) organs
                                                                                                1. (Endocrine= glands which secrete hormones or other products directly into the blood)
                                                                                                2. One pituitary hormone stimulates ovaries to produce oestrogen
                                                                                                  1. Oestrogen circulates in blood and & stimulates secondary sex characteristics (characteristics that appear during puberty)
                                                                                                    1. Breasts develop & increase in size
                                                                                                      1. Nipples become larger
                                                                                                        1. Hair develops in pubic region & under armpits
                                                                                                          1. Hips become broader (pelvis widens & fat is deposited)
                                                                                                            1. Vagina increases in size
                                                                                                              1. Puberty can be delayed in extremely muscular girls (e.g. gymnasts)
                                                                                                          2. Behaviour
                                                                                                            1. Girls become more maternal (motherly) and attracted to boys
                                                                                                            2. (Chemical messengers which are produced by glands to alter the activity of one or more specific target organs)
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