Mind Map by Laura29, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Laura29 over 5 years ago


Mind Map on HISTORY- CHAPTER1-THE WORK OF AN ARCHAEOLOGIST, created by Laura29 on 11/14/2014.

Resource summary

1 Pieces of evidence from the past are known as artefacts.
2 Archaeology means 'the study of ancient things'.
3 How do they get into the ground?
3.1 People may lose them.
3.2 People may hide them but something might happen to them so they can't retrieve it again.
3.3 Items may be buried alongside people.
3.4 Whole towns are sometimes lost.
4 How do archaeologists find these artefacts?
4.1 They are often just lucky
4.2 They use geophysics.
4.3 When a new building/road is being built it is possible for an archaeologist to examine the area.
4.4 Some sites are found after listening to stories.
4.5 Some sites can be found from above using a plane or a helicopter
5 Excavation/dig
5.1 1.Plan very carefully to make sure nothing breaks. 2.Preserve the site of animals, bad weather etc. 3. Once the top layer of soil has been removed, the archaeologists begin work.
6 Tools
6.1 Pick-axe to loosen the soil, trowels to remove small amounts of soil, brushes to allow soil to be carefully removed from an artefact, sieves so that no matter how small the artefact it won't be thrown away & drawing frames to record the position you found the object
7 How to tell how old things are?
7.1 Stratigraphy
7.1.1 The older the object the further down in the ground it will be.
7.2 Carbon Dating
7.2.1 Every living thing contains a chemical called Carbon-14 while it is alive. When it dies, it begins to slowly release Carbon-14. The older the object the less Carbon-14 it will have.
7.3 The Bones of a Skeleton
7.3.1 Pelvis: Man or woman. Teeth: Depending on how old they are the skeleton's age can be estimated. Bones: If there are broken bones, it may be possible to tell how the person died. Thigh: How tall the person was. Body hair/skin: What the person ate & drank.
7.4 Dendrochronology
7.4.1 This method is used to date any wooden object. Each year a tree adds a layer of wood to it's trunk & branches. The tree ring creates a sort of pattern that can be compared to other trees. Archaeologists have created a record of the pattern going back thousands of years.
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