Phonetics and Phonology

Valentina  Scopetta
Mind Map by Valentina Scopetta, updated more than 1 year ago
Valentina  Scopetta
Created by Valentina Scopetta almost 3 years ago


Conceptual Map about the Mechanism of Speech Sounds, (Organs of Speech). for the course of Phonetics and Phonology of the UNAD.

Resource summary

Phonetics and Phonology
  1. Organs of Speech
    1. From the lungs to the lips and the nose, this organs in conjunct are normally adapted for speech production.
      1. Air Stream Mechanism
        1. Referred to the air stream expelled from the lungs, this mechanism is a process of air stream release that works together to form sounds.
        2. The Speech Chain
          1. The different stages involved in the process of speech production from the initiation to that of its full realisation, mostly about the way of the air stream as it comes outwards from the lungs towards the larynx.
          2. The States of the Glottis
            1. Closed Glottis
              1. when the folds are brought close together so that no air is allowed to pass, this results in a glottal stop that frequently precedes the forceful articulation of vowels.
              2. Open Glotis
                1. when glottis is held open for normal breathing, this state produces the voiceless sounds of English.
                2. Narrow Glotis
                  1. when vocal folds loosely held together, this state makes folds vibrate to produce voice, giving as a result all vowels, nasals, glides and laterals.
                3. Resonating Cavities
                  1. In the vocal tract The shape assumed by the pharynx, the velum (soft palate) and the mouth are important for sound production. These organs are called resonators
                    1. The pharyngeal cavity extends from the top of the larynx and the oesophagus, beyond the epiglottis and the root of the tongue, to the region in the rear of the soft palate.
                      1. The velum or soft palate may be lowered to allow the air escape through the nose and the mouth. This produces nasalised sounds, the nasalised vowels and consonants.
                      2. The Mouth
                        1. The shape of lips usually affects the total cavity. They may be shut tightly or held loosely or rounded. If they are shut totally, there's a total obstruction of the air stream.
                          1. The tongue so flexible that is capable of assuming a great many varieties of positions of articulation of both vowels and consonants.
                            1. The lower jaw is also capable of a great deal of movement; it controls the gap between the lower and the upper teeth and the position of the lips and works on the variations in the shapes of the mouth in speech production
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