P6: Radioactive Materials

grainnelee
Mind Map by grainnelee, updated more than 1 year ago
grainnelee
Created by grainnelee over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on P6: Radioactive Materials, created by grainnelee on 11/20/2014.

Resource summary

P6: Radioactive Materials
1 Types of radiation
1.1 Gamma
1.1.1 Least Ionising, most penetrating-few cm of lead, no charge
1.2 Beta
1.2.1 Mid Ionising, Mid penetrating-thin metal , negative charge
1.3 Alpha
1.3.1 Most Ionising, Least penetrating-paper/skin, positive charge
2 What is nuclear fusion?
2.1 When 2 hydrogen nuclei in the atoms are brought close together and fuse- releasing energy
3 What are Isotopes?
3.1 Atoms of an element that have a different mass number due to a different number of neutrons
4 E=mc²
4.1 E=ENERGY PRODUCED m=change in mass c=speed of light calculates the amount of energy released during nuclear fission and fusion
5 Half life- time taken for number of atoms to halve from decay
6 Radioactive Decay- the spontaneous change in an unstable element, giving out alpha, beta or gamma radiation. Alpha and beta emission result in a new element
7 Radiation Sources
7.1 Natural
7.1.1 84%
7.1.2 50% from radon gas in the ground
7.1.3 12% from cosmic rays
7.1.4 9.5% from food and drink
7.1.5 13% from gamma rays from the ground and buildings
7.2 Artificial
7.2.1 15% medical
7.2.2 16%
8 What is nuclear fission?
8.1 The process when a nucleus of uranium-235 breaks apart, releasing energy, when it absorbs a neutron
9 Nuclear fuel-in a nuclear reactor, each uranium atom in a fuel rod undergoes fission and releases energy when hit by a neutron
10 Radiotherapy-using high doses of ionising to kill cancerous cells/x-rays in the body
11 Sterilisation-gamma radiation kills microorganisms through packaging in medical equipment
12 Why is ionising radiation dangerous?
12.1 Ionising radiation has the energy to break molecules in the cells in the body into ions. These ions can then take part in chemical reactions that might damage the body. If the ionising radiation affects DNA molecules, this may cause the cell to be killed or behave abnormally, which can cause cancer.
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