it is involuntary control.
Dual innervations and it reacts with both sympathetic and parasympathetic actions oppose to each other.
1 Autonomic Nervous Systems
It innervates visceral organs.
It's action can be sympathetic or parasympathetic.
Parasympathetic activity dominates rest and digest while the sympathetic ones is meant for fight or flight.
The autonomic system are connected with the CNS via 2 neurone arranged in series with peripheral ganglia
It is involuntary and the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that belong to sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) overlaps.
Properties of smooth muscles include intercellular bridges hence it can be amplified and depolarized.
1.1.1 Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
short in sympathetic and long in parasympathetic
long in sympathetic and short in parasympathetic
Transmitter at ganglion:
ACh for both
Transmitter at organs:
At sympathetic, NE, NA and ACh and dopamine,
For parasympathetic, only ACh
Parasympathetic ganglia are close to the organs. While the sympathetic nerves ganglia are close to the spinal column.
All of the ANS neural system requires Acetylcholine to function, however, the sympathetic system that innervates the heart uses adrenaline and noradrenaline at the muscular neural junction.
It produces about 85% Adrenaline and 15% noradrenaline.
1.3 Antagonistic Control
Internal organs are under antagonistic control one branch is inhibitory and one is excitatory.
With the exception of sweat glands and the smooth muscle in most blood vessels.
2 Cholinergic Transmission
Cholinergic referes to the neuron or axon that is capable of releasing neurotransmitter, ACh when a nerve impulse passes.
The entire Parasympathetic nervous System.
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous systems
Somatic motor neuron
Positively charged quaternary ammonium group.
It also have an ester group and easily hydrolysed
IT is not selective for receptor subtypes.
It has at ganglia and neuromuscular junction, it stimulates nicotinic receptors.
At parasympathetic junctions, it stimulates muscarinic receptors.