Position of Black Americans

Niamh MacElvogue
Mind Map by Niamh MacElvogue, updated more than 1 year ago
Niamh MacElvogue
Created by Niamh MacElvogue about 5 years ago
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Edexcel iGCSE history

Resource summary

Position of Black Americans
1 Jim Crow laws
1.1 Laws after end of slavery (1860)
1.2 Controlled black people's freedoms as the 41 state governments feared the growing power of black people
1.3 Segregated blacks from whites in schools, parks, hospitals, swimming pools, libraries and other public places
1.3.1 After WWI - extended to taxis and boxing matches
1.4 Couldn't vote
1.5 denied a reasonable education
2 Unfair treatment
2.1 1919 - at least 70 blacks lynched in the Southern states
2.1.1 Police tended to turn a blind eye
2.2 360,000 black soldiers served in WWI but returned to racism
2.3 Moved north due to racism, bad living conditions, chronic poverty, post 1910
2.4 Still unfair in North:
2.4.1 poorly paid jobs
2.4.2 ghettos
2.4.3 racial intolerance
2.4.3.1 1919 - Polish/Irish immigrants attacked blacks in Chicago who tried to use public facilities
2.4.4 inferior education, healthcare and housing compared to whites
2.4.5 First to be laid off in bad times
3 Du Bois
3.1 PhD at Harvard but unable to get a job at a major university
3.2 Aware of the divide despite fairly happy childhood
3.3 Urged African-Americans to fight back against segregation
3.4 Co-founded Niagara movement
3.4.1 African-American protest group of professionals and scholars
3.5 Among founders of NAACP
3.6 Protest focussed on securing anti-lynching legislation
3.7 Active in showing hardships faced by African-Americans to the UN
3.8 Considered himself a socialist
4 Marcus Garvey
4.1 thought African-Americans should be proud of their heritage
4.2 Early life - launched several businesses to promote a separate black nation
4.3 Set up the Universal Negro Improvement Association to establish strong connections with Africa
4.4 Other black rights campaigners didn't support Garvey's idea of a separate Black culture
4.5 Ended up being deported
4.6 idea passed on to 'Black is beautiful' of the 1960s
5 The KKK
5.1 Aimed to terrorise black people newly freed from slavery
5.2 Revived in 1915 after film showed in favourable light
5.3 WASPs fighting for white supremacy
5.4 Against all foreigners and non-Protestants
5.5 Reasons they were supported
5.5.1 Limited employment opportunities supposedly due to immigrants
5.5.1.1 Particularly war veterans returning from WWI
5.5.2 Fear of black migrants to cities - 1920=100,000 1925=5,000,000
5.5.3 They were anti-communist so fear from Red scare
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