1 First language acquisition is remarkable for the
speed with it takes place
1.1 in addition
1.1.1 to the speed of acquisition the fact that it
generally occurs, without overt instructions for
all children, regardless of great differences in their circumstances.
184.108.40.206.1 strong support for the
idea that there is an
inmate predisposition in
the human infant to
2 Basic requirements
2.1 A child requieres
-users in order to
bring this general
with a particular
language such as
2.1.1 that is why
220.127.116.11 the child must also be
physically capable on
sending and receiving
sound signals in a
18.104.22.168.1 in order to
22.214.171.124.1.1 speak a language,
a child must be
able to hear that
used by itself.
126.96.36.199.2.1 hearing a language is not enough.
188.8.131.52.2.1.1 A boy raised by deaf parents was
exposure to TV and radio programs .
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 the boy did not acquire an ability to speak or understand English.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1 he did learn effectively ,by the age of three
was the use of American Language
3.1.1 the same basis as the
development of motor skills.
126.96.36.199 this biological schedule
188.8.131.52.1.1 tied very much to the
maturation of the infant's
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 for example:
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 an infant is capable
such as (ba) and (pa)
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1 this acquisition capacity then requires
is a sufficient constant type of "input"
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 the basis of the regularities in a particular
language can be worked out.
4 Caregiver speech
4.1 is characteristically simplified
speech style adopted
18.104.22.168 someone who spends a lot of time
interacting with a young child.
22.214.171.124.1 salient features of this type of speech
126.96.36.199.1.1.1 the frequent use of questions, often using
exaggerated intonations, extra loudness and
slower temp with longer pauses.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Caregiver speech is also
characterized by simple sentence
structures and a lot of repetition.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 it has generally been observed that
the speech of those regularly
interacting with very young children
changes and becomes more
elaborated as the child begins using
more and more language.
5 Cooing and babbling
5.1 the earliest use of
speech-like has been
describe as cooing.
shown that by
the time they
22.214.171.124.1 difference between the vowels (i) and (a)
and discriminate beteen syllables like (ba)
5.2 the type of sound production is
described as babbling
5.2.1 is when
126.96.36.199 the child is sitting up and
producing a number of different
vowels and consonants, as well
as combination such as ba-ba-ba
5.3.1 children begin to pull
themselves into a
standing position during
the tenth and eleventh
months, they become
capable of using their
vocalizations to express
emotions and emphasis
6 The one-word stage
6.1.1 characterized by speech in
which single terms are
uttered for everyday
188.8.131.52 such as
184.108.40.206.1 "milk, cookie,cat,cup,and spoon"
220.127.116.11.1.1 we sometimes
18.104.22.168.1.1.1 use the term holophrastic (meaning a single form
functioning as a phrase or sentence)
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 describe an utterance that could be analyzed as a word,
a phrase, or a sentence.
6.2 The two word stage
188.8.131.52 around eighteen to twenty months
184.108.40.206.1 the child vocabulary moves beyond fifty words
220.127.116.11.1.2.1 the adult interpretation of such
combination is of course, very
tied to the context of their
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 significant functional consequences are
that the adult behaves as if communication is
7 Telegraphic speech
7.1 this is
7.1.1 characterized by strings of words (lexical
morphemes)in phrases of sentences such
as THIS SHOE, ALL WET AND DADDY GO
126.96.36.199.1 the age of two-and-half, the child's vocabulary is
expanding rapidly and the child is initiating more talk
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 increased physical activity includes
running and jumping.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 at this point, it is
what kind of
influence, if any
the adults have in
the child's speech.
8 The acquisition process
8.1 in this stage
8.1.1 exists a more accurate view would have the children actively constructing
18.104.22.168.1 what is said to them, possible ways of using language .The child's linguistic
production appears to be mostly a matter of trying out constructions and testing
whether they work or not.
22.214.171.124.1.1 it is simply not possible that the child is acquiring the language
principally through a process of imitating adult speech.
126.96.36.199.1.1.1 one factor
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 that seems to be important in the child's acquisition
process is the actual use of sound and word
combination, either in interaction with others or in
word play alone.
9 Developing morphology
9.1 By the time a child is two and a half years old,
the inflectional morphemes that indicate the
grammatical function of the nouns and verbs
220.127.116.11 acquisition of plural marker is often
accompanied by a process of
18.104.22.168.1 the child
22.214.171.124.1.1 overgeneralizes the apparent rule of
adding -so to plurals and will talk about
foots and mans.
126.96.36.199.1.1.1 at about
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 the same time,
different forms of the
verb "to be", such a
are and was, begin to
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1 appearance of forms
such as was and, at
the same time, went
and came should be
10 Developing syntax
10.1 there have been numorous
studies of the development of
syntax in children's speech .
10.1.1.1 appear to be three
identifiable stages, which
10.1.1.1.1.1 the general pattern seems to be :
10.1.1.1.1.1.1 stage 1: between 18 and 26
10.1.1.1.22.214.171.124 stage 2: beetween 22 and 30 months
10.1.1.1.126.96.36.199.1 stage 3: beetween 24 and 40 months.
11 forming questions
11.1 the child has three stages wich has
11.1.1 fisrt stage: simply ass a
Whform (where,who) to
the beginning of the
11.1.2 in the second stage, more
complex expressions can
be formed, but the raising
continues to be used.
11.1.3 in the third stage, the requiered inversion of
subject and verb in English questions appears (I can
go-Can I go)
11.2 forming negatives
11.2.1 in the case of negatives, stage one
seems to involve a simple strategy of
putting no or not at hte beginning.
188.8.131.52 in the second stage the additional negative forms
don't and can't appear, and with no and not , are
increasingly used in front of the verb rather than at
the beginning of the sentence.
184.108.40.206.1 the third stage sees the
incorporation of the auxilary
forms such as didn't and
won't while the typical stage