History - Germany 1918 - 1945

Grace Evans
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Grace Evans
Created by Grace Evans over 4 years ago
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History - Germany 1918 - 1945
1 The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi: 1920 - 1934
1.1 The Consolidation of Power
1.1.1 Great Depression

Annotations:

  • (See Impact of the Wall Street Crash)
1.1.2 Hitler becomes Chancellor

Annotations:

  • See "The Events of 1932-33"
1.1.3 Removal of Opposition
1.1.3.1 The Reichstag Fire

Annotations:

  • On the 27th of February 1933 the Reichstag building was burnt down in an arson attack. It was blamed on a young Dutch communist (Marinus van der Lubbe) who was caught on the site. He confessed, was put on trial, found guilty and sentenced to death. Hindenburg was forced to declare a state of emergency, by which he gave Hitler temporary power to pass temporary laws without consulting the Reichstag. The first law Hitler passes was the "Decree for the Protection of the People and the State". This banned communism as is suspended the civil rights of the German Citizens meaning he was able to imprison political opponents.  
1.1.3.2 The Enabling Act

Annotations:

  • This was placed before the Reichstag on the 23rd of March 1933. It passed easily as the communists had been removed and so the rest of the Reichstag were either Nazis or sympathetic to them The Enabling Act allowed Hitler to pass laws on his own for the next 4 years. His first few acts banned trade unions, made the Nazi Party that could be joined/voted for and took power away from local governments so that Hitler had all the power.
1.1.3.3 The Night of Long Knives

Annotations:

  • This took place on the night of June 30th 1934. Hitler got rid of any opposition within his own party by killing off top people in the SA (eg Rohm) as he felt that the SA were giving the Nazis a bad image and were generally disliked by the German people. Rohm (the leader of the SA) was in an ideal position to challenge Hitler as he had the loyalty of the 3 million strong SA. He also opposed Hitler's policies and criticised Hitler's link with rich industrialists. Rohm had his home raided, he was then arrested, imprisoned, and shot. The army were worried about the SA as they had more men than the army and could possibly be a threat. The SS was in charge of arresting and killing any opponents. Hitler was able to get away with all of this as he claimed it was for the good of the country.  
1.1.3.4 The Death of Hindenburg

Annotations:

  • Hindenburg died on August 2nd which benefitted Hitler as it took away the only person who cold stop him. This also allowed Hitler to merge the roles of president and chancellor to create the role of Fuhrer  
1.1.4 Democracy to Dictatorship

Annotations:

  • Hitler changed of oath alliance so that it placed Hitler higher than Germany He also set up the Nazi Peoples courts where judges had to swear an oath of loyalty to the Nazis. This mean that Hitler could control anything that went on by punishing harshly anything deemed anti-Nazi. He retrained teachers so that they could teach Nazi propaganda He also made all other political parties illegal.
1.2 The Road to Power
1.2.1 Hitler and the German Workers' Party

Annotations:

  • Hitler joined the German Worker's Party (DAP) (based in Munich) in 1919. When he joined there were only about 40 regular members.Hitler shared the same views as the party and they railed against: -the communists and socialists whom are to blame for bringing down the Kaiser -the Weimar politicians who had accepted the Treaty of Versailles -the weakness of all democracies -the Jews whom they blamed for the undermining the German economy
1.2.2 Changes to the Party 1920-22
1.2.2.1 The 25 Point Programme

Annotations:

  • By 1920 Hitler was working as Drexler's (the founder/leader) right hand man. In February 1920 the two men revealed their new 25 point programme. The 25 point programme reflected the party's views on a range of important issues. It was also intended to le people know what National Socialism (Nazism) stood for: -Nationalism: the belief that Germany needed to be strong and love of country was more important than anything else. The programme called for and end to the Treaty of Versailles; it said that Germany should build and empire by expanding its borders to give its people more lebensraum (more land to live in) -Socialism: the belief that working class people should be given a bigger share of the nations wealth. The programme called for more generous pensions and said that the rich industrialists should share more wealth. -It also contained some extremely racist views, in particular it stated that Jews could never be considered to be true German citizens and that they should be sacked if they held government jobs.
1.2.2.2 Party Growth

Annotations:

  • Hitler's public speaking attracted many supporters who too were dissatisfied with the Weimar Government. Membership grew rapidly to about 1100 in June 1920.In August, Hitler's suggestion the DAP changed it name to the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party for short). The Party then adopted the Swastika emblem and the raised arm salute. Membership increased to 3000 by the end of 1920 and this increased the parties funds so that the were even able to buy a newspaper to spread their views further.
1.2.2.3 Hitler takes over

Annotations:

  • In 1921 Hitler replaced Drexler as the leader of the NSDAP and declared himself party Fuhrer. He gathered around him loyal party leaders: -Ernst Rohm (later the leader of the SA0 -Hermann Goering (a wealthy hero of the German Airforce) -Rudolf Hess (A wealthy academic who later became Hitler's deputy) -Julius Streicher (founder of a Nazi newspaper)
1.2.3 Munich Putsch
1.2.3.1 Causes

Annotations:

  • -The Nazi Party hated the Weimar government so they refused to stand for election, instead they thought they could overthrow the government by force -Hitler though that the Nazis could start a revolution as the government was very weak due to the hyperinflation and they also had the support o General Ludendorff (a well known, important and respected man who fought in WW1) 
1.2.3.2 Events

Annotations:

  •  On the evening of the 8th of November 1923, there was a meting of 3000 officals of the Bavarian Government in a beer hall in Munich. The 3 main speakers were von Kahr (leader of the Bavarian government), von Seisser (head of the Bavarian police), and von Lossow (head of the army in Bavaria). Hitler burst into the hall with 600 SA men and announced he was taking over the government of Bavaria and claimed that once he took control of Munich he would then march against the German government itself. The speakers were asked if they would agree to support the uprising and, when confronted with Hitler, they did. However Hitler then agreed to let the men leave. This meant that the men could alert the government and have the police and the army waiting for Hitler the next day. When Hitler marched through the town centre to declare himself President of Germany the next day, him and the SA were met by state police who opened fire. Hitler's bodyguard was shot and Hitler fled. He was later found and arrested
1.2.3.3 Results

Annotations:

  • Short term negative effects -Hitler and 3 other leaders of the Putsch were put on trial, found guilty of treason , and sentenced to 5 years in Landsberg Prison. -The NSDAP was banned - It seemed to be a defeat and humiliation for Hitler Beneficial long term effects -Hitler was able to use his trial to gain national publicity for his views -Hitler only served 9 months of his sentence and was able to spend his time in prison to write his book, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) -Hitler realised that he would have to use legal and democratic means to gain power. He is quoted as saying "We shall have to hold our noses and entre the Reichstag"  
1.2.4 Re-organisation of the Party

Annotations:

  • -Hitler re-launched the Nazi Party on 27th February 1925 - Ironially at the Burgerbrau Keller beer house which was the scene of the Munich Putsch. - He decided to split the party into regions and appointed a "gauleiler" to run each district. This meant the party could spread out over Germany and also meant that Hitler wouldn't have to run everything. -He also befriended many rich businessmen who would give him donations in order to improve the party's finances. This also meant that the SA could expand to 400,000 men. -He created the Schutzstaffel (protection squad) also know as the SS to act as his loyal bodyguards. -
1.2.5 Impact of the Wall Street Crash

Annotations:

  • - The Wall Street Crash in 1929 led to a world wide economic collapse (the Great Depression). - Germany relied on American loans which were now cancelled. The result was that much of German industry and business was unable to function and unemployment rose. - In 1932 unemployment was at a record high at about 5,000,000 people and at the same time the Nazi party was becoming the largest party in Germany with 230 seats in the Reichstag. -There seemed to be a clear link between unemployment and Nazi success, this was likely because the Nazi's argued that the Weimar Government was weak and this proved it. As people began to lose faith in the government they began to look for more extreme alternatives.
1.2.6 Nazi methods to win support
1.2.6.1 Middle class support

Annotations:

  • -Hitler promised to lead the middle class out of the Great Depression -People (especially the middle class) didn't want the communist party to take over and the Nazis promised to stop this -People felt that there had been a moral downfall during the 20's and the Nazis promised to bring back traditional German values.
1.2.6.2 Big businesses

Annotations:

  • -Hitler needed donations from big/rich/powerful businesses -The business owners also didn't want the communists take power as it would make them pay workers more and make them pay more taxes.
1.2.6.3 Farmer's

Annotations:

  • -Hitler wanted Germany to be self-sufficient this meant farmers became important in growing food -The Nazis promised not to confiscate private land like the communists would
1.2.6.4 Young people and women

Annotations:

  • -Women were often overlooked by other political parties so lots of Hitler's propaganda was aimed at women. -Young people were very impressionable and were take by the speeches and grandeur of the Nazi Party
1.2.6.5 Hitler's appeal

Annotations:

  • -The German people saw Hitler as being a strong leader who could unite the country, restore order from social unrest, force other nations of scrap the Treaty of Versailles and persuade other nations to treat Germany fairly. -
1.2.6.6 Strength of the SA

Annotations:

  • -The SA was stronger than the communist private army -The SA was used in rallies to make the Nazis look strong, organised, disciplined and reliable. -The SA was used to disrupt opposition parties  
1.2.6.7 Working class support

Annotations:

  • -The working class was the biggest group of voters so it was important to get them onside -Many working class people were attracted to the party for their traditional German values and the support for a strong Germany -The Nazis also promised to deal with unemployment, advertising "Food and Work" on posters -They also appeared to be the party that would support the German workers, they were called the German Workers Party.
1.2.7 Goebbles and propaganda

Annotations:

  • Propaganda is the information or the ideas that you spread to help your own cause or harm other people's Hitler placed Dr Joseph Goebbles in charge of the Nazi Party's propaganda. Propaganda helped the Nazi party in 4 main ways 1)They created scapegoats to blame for Germany's problems eg. Jews, Communists, leaders of the Weimar Republic and especially the Social Democrats who signed the Armistice and Treaty of Versailles. 2) It promoted Hitler's views as the voice of the Nazi party. By the 1930's his speeches were reported in 120 daily/weekly Nazi newspapers across Germany 3) It created an image of strength for the Nazi Party 4) The propaganda was shown to the nation in the most modern forms of technology
1.2.8 The work of the SA

Annotations:

  • On of Hitler's first actions as leader of the NSDAP was to establish the Sturmabteilung (SA, also known as the storm troopers or brown shirts). This was essentially the Nazis' private army, made up of mostly working class men. Its roles included:-Providing protection for Nazi leaders at meetings-Beating up Nazi enemies (Jews and Communists)-Wining working class support for the Nazis-Marching in the streets to make the party look attractive, advertise the Nazi cause and hand out propaganda to attract members -Disrupting other parties meetingsThe SA was lead by a close friend of Hitler's, Ernst Rohm
1.2.9 The Events of 1932-33

Annotations:

  • Presidential elections of 1932 - President Hindenburg beats Hitler with 18 million votes to 11 million, the communist leader only got 5 million votes. - As nobody got a 50% of the votes, the election was recast and Hitler got 13 million votes making him the biggest party Fall of Chancellor Bruning -He used a chancellor's decree to ban the SS and SA however this angered the right wing parties so von Scleicher decided to remove him by making a coalition Von Papen becomes Chancellor -Von Scleicher controlled the new government from behind the scenes - As the Nazis were the biggest party they were asked to join the coalition -Hitler wanted to be Chancellor but Hindenburg refused -Without Hitler's support though von Papen was forced to resign Von Schleicher becomes Chancellor -Hindenburg again refuses to appoint Hitler so appoints von Schleicher instead -von Schleicher believes that Nazis were losing support however he still couldn't get a majority -He planed to set up military dictatorship however his plans were leaked so von Schleicher was sacked Hitler becomes Chancellor -The idea was that Hindenburg would be President, Hitler as Chancellor and von Papen as Vice. This would allow Hitler to still be a figure head but could be controlled. -Hindenburg reluctantly agreed and appointed Hitler as Chancellor in 1933
1.3 The main ideas of Nazism
1.3.1 Nationalism

Annotations:

  • -Breaking the Treaty of Versailles -Reviving Germanys Power -Expanding Germanys borders -Making Germany self-sufficient
1.3.2 Racial Purity

Annotations:

  • -Aryan Race (blonde hair, blue eyes, tall) were superior -Other races were inferior -No Jews
1.3.3 Socialism

Annotations:

  • -Control of big business -Agriculture and industry would grow -Jews cannot control business -Workers treated fairly
1.3.4 Struggle

Annotations:

  • -Gain more land to live in (Lebensraum) -get rid of non-Germans in the border
1.3.5 Traditional German Values

Annotations:

  • -Clear gender roles -Old-style German culture -Christian morality -Strong family values
1.3.6 Totalitarianism

Annotations:

  • -The leader would control all aspects of life -need a strong leader -no democracy
2 The Weimar Republic: 1918 - 1929
2.1 The Establishment of the Weimar Republic and its early problems
2.1.1 The German Revolution of 1918

Annotations:

  • In 1914 the Germans went to war confident in victory however by 1918 it was clear this was not the caseIn November 1918 the sailors in Kiel mutinied. This mutiny spread to nearby towns and cities where people began demonstrating against the war. They blamed the government and the Kaiser in particular.Much of Germany joined the revolution and the Kaiser abdicated and fled to the Netherlands oh the 9th of November.Power was then handed over to Friedrich Ebert, leader of the Social Democrats (SPD).The new government began peace talks with the Allies. An Armistice came into force at 11am on November 11 1918. The governments was formally elected in February 1919 and the new government met for the first time in the town of Weimar. Here Ebert was formally elected as Germany's first president and a new constitution was agreed.  
2.1.2 The strengths and weaknesses of the new Constitution
2.1.2.1 Advantages

Annotations:

  • All Germans have equal rights, including the right to vote Proportional representation made sure the political parties were allocated seats in Parliament in proportion to the number of votes they got. This was fair A strong president was necessary to keep control over the government and to protect the country in a crisis. (Article 48: In the event of an emergency the president can over rule the Reichstag and make rules) Each state had its own traditions. It was right they should control over their own affairs.   
2.1.2.2 Disadvantages

Annotations:

  • In 1919 the Republic had many enemies. It was not sensible to give equal rights to those who wished to destroy itProportional representation encouraged lots of small parties which each got a small number of MP's. No one party could get a majority so the governments had to be coalitions. There could never be a strong government. The president had too much power. it was possible he could turn himself into a dictator. The states could be hostile to the national government and even try to overthrow it.
2.1.3 Uprisings
2.1.3.1 The Spartacist Uprising
2.1.3.1.1 Aims

Annotations:

  • The Spartacists were an extreme left wing/ communist group who wanted a violent revolution to overthrow the government. They wanted to replace the government with soviet workers councils where a small groups of workers run small areas.
2.1.3.1.2 Events

Annotations:

  • An uprising by workers in Berlin in early January 1919 Lead by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht Clashes between the revolutionaries and the government meant that Ebert withdrew his government to the safety of the Weimar They captured important government buildings as wells as newspaper and government offices Ebert deployed the army and the Freikorps (ex-soliders who weren't apart of the official army) to crush the rebellion and take over the spartacists HQ
2.1.3.1.3 Consequences

Annotations:

  • 1000's of Spartacists were killed throughout Germany, no mercy was shown. The leaders were all murdered after being arrested However the communist party did still gain followers It also gave more power to the freikorps
2.1.3.2 The Kapp Putch
2.1.3.2.1 Aims

Annotations:

  • Extreme right-wing/ monarchists/nationalists who wanted the Kaiser back. They wanted to undo the German revolution and overthrow the Weimar republic
2.1.3.2.2 Events

Annotations:

  • March 1920, lead by Wolfgang Kapp and Walter Von Luttwitz, 5600 men tried to take over the government. They assassinated 356 politicians The coup was supported by parts of the military, especially General Ludendorff, as they didn't like the Treaty of Versailles   However the coup failed as it was not supported by the general public as they went on strike and refused to cooperate with the "Kapp Government"
2.1.3.2.3 Consequences
2.1.4 French Occupation of the Ruhr
2.1.4.1 Causes

Annotations:

  • Germany was bankrupt as it had used all its gold reserves in the war and then had to pay reparations after the ToV . This also deprived it of many of its wealth earning areas such as coal fields. This meant that Germany could no longer pay its reparations
2.1.4.2 Effects

Annotations:

  • In retaliation to the Germans stopping paying the reparations the French sent troops into the German industrial area of the Ruhr where all of the factories and coal mines where They confiscated raw materials, manufactured goods and machinery to the value of what they were owed The German Government urged passive resistance (workers strikes) but the French just arrested these workers and brought in their own The disruption increased Germany's debts, unemployment, shortage of goods, poverty and social unrest. Eventually the German government had to call of the passive resistance and the French left when they promised to restart paying the reparations
2.1.5 Hyperinflation
2.1.5.1 Causes

Annotations:

  • 0The shortage of goods meant that the prices of things went up meaning people had to pay more money to get what they needed. The government needed money to pay the reparation but unemployment and failing factories meant that they received less money from taxes As a result the government simply printed more money however this meant that the value of the Mark fell dramatically.
2.1.5.2 Effects

Annotations:

  • By 1923 prices reached spectacular heights. A loaf of bread in 1919 cost 1 mark, in 1922 20 marks and in 1923 100,000 million marks This resulted in shortages of goods as the mark became so worthless against foreign currency that foreign suppliers refused to accept the mark for goods so import stopped. Everybody found it difficult to buy what they needed as people had the literally wheelbarrow money to buy basics like bread. Workers were paid up to 4 times per day to buys goods before the prices increases. Some shops even refused money and would only trade People with savings or people on fixed income (eg pensioners) were hit the hardest as their savings and income was now worthless
2.1.6 Treaty of Versailles
2.1.6.1 Reactions

Annotations:

  • -Many right wing nationalists thought that the politicians who signed the armistice and the treaty were traitors to Germany and they called them the November Criminals. -They created the myth that Germany would have won the war but the army had been stabbed in the back (the Dolchstoss)
2.1.6.2 Blame

Annotations:

  • - Clause 231 stated that Germany had to accept full responsibility and sole blame for the war
2.1.6.3 Reparations

Annotations:

  • -Had to pay Allies for the cost of the war - 136,000 million marks/ £6.6 billion was set in 1921 to be paidback over the next 66 years
2.1.6.4 Army

Annotations:

  • - Army limited to 100,000 men to be used internally only-No airforce allowed. Existing airforce destroyed-Navy limited to 6 battleships, 6 crusiers, 12 destroyers and 12 torpedos, no submarines. - The Rhineland was demiliterised
2.1.6.5 Territory

Annotations:

  • -lost 13% of its European Territory - Alsace Lorraine lost to France -Eupen and Malmedy lost to Belgium -Posen and West Prussia lost to Poland. This divided the country in 2, separating East Prussia. This was called the Polish Corridor -Lost 11 colonies in Africa and the Far East to the Allies.
2.2 The Recovery of Germany
2.2.1 The work of Stresemann

Annotations:

  • Stresemann rose to prominence during the hyperinflation crisis.  He briefly served as Chancellor (1923-24) but did most of his important work as Foreign Minister (1924-29)
2.2.1.1 Rentenmark

Annotations:

  • In October 1923 the old currency, the mark, was abolished and a new, temporary currency was introduced, the Rentenmark. In August 1924 the Rentenmark was replaced by a more, permanent currency called the Reichsmark. Confidence in the currency, banking system, and economy was restored.  
2.2.1.2 Dawes Plan

Annotations:

  • Reparation payments were set so high that Germany had been unable to pay in 1923 and so the Allies needed to be persuaded to reduce them. Sresemann and the Allies agreed to: -Reduce annual payments to an affordable level -The USA promised to provide $800 million in loans to German Industry to promote economic growth -The Ruhr area would be evacuated by Allied occupation troops as soon as reparation payments restarted  
2.2.1.3 Young Plan

Annotations:

  • In August 1929 the Young Plan cut reparation payments from £6.6 billion to £2 billion with 59 more years to pay. The plan strengthened the Weimar republic
2.2.1.4 The Locarno Pact

Annotations:

  • In October 1925 Germany agreed to keeps its new 1919 border with France and Belgium. In return the Allies agreed to remove their troops from the Rhineland This resulted in Germany being treated as equals.
2.2.1.5 Kellogg-Briand Pact

Annotations:

  • Stresemann was keep to prove Germany's commitment to international peace. Germany was one of the 65 countries to sign the pact, which was an international agreement which states promised not to use war to achieve their foreign policy aims. This resulted in Germany had become a respectable member of the international community.
2.2.1.6 The League of Nations

Annotations:

  • The Locarno Pact paved the way for Germany's remittance. In the 1926 Stresemann persuaded the League to accept Germany as a member. This resulted in Germany being trusted again.
3 Hitler's Germany: 1933 - 1945
3.1 Life in Nazi Germany
3.1.1 Youth and Education

Annotations:

  • Young people were important to the Nazis because it is easier to convert someone to your way of thinking when they have yet to fully develop their own beliefs. Hitler also saw the youth as the future of Germany and they would ensure that Nazi ideas lived on in future generations.
  • -The Nazis were quick to seize control of the school system. Hitler wanted a new generation of warriors who could be trained from an early age. This could be done by giving boys an "appropriate education".- Also he wanted women to give up their dreams of work outside the home, become housewives, look after their husbands and raise a new generation of warriors. This could be done by giving girls an "appropriate education".-Teachers had to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler and agree to teach a new curriculum that include race studies. One-sixth of school time was to be given to PE, to keep young people healthy. Nazi ideas were spread through subjects as diverse as History (Where past German glories were highlighted) and Maths. -Girls and boys were given separate educations as the Nazis believed that they would have different roles in adulthood. Girls education focused on skills they would need for motherhood such as cooking and sewing. Boys still focused on academic subjects. The emphasis on physical education was important in both though.
  • -Outside of school the Nazis ran (compulsory) youth movements for boys and girls in which the common factor was keeping fit. -Boys: Joined the Hitler Youth (HJ) at 14 where there a an emphasis on physical training for military service. -Girls: The main group for girls which they joined at about 14 was the League of German Maidens where there was an emphasis on physical fitness as a preparation for motherhood. -Everybody was expected to attended, many children were keen on the groups for the exciting activities they offered, others only joined to keep them and their parents out of trouble.
3.1.2 The Church

Annotations:

  • -In the 1930's, society was much more respectful towards religion. -The Nazis feared that the Church leaders would start to speak out against them and he did not want anti-Nazi sermons being given every Sunday.-As 1/3 of Germans ere Catholic Hitler made a concordat (agreement) with the pope to benefit both of them. -For the Pope: Hitler agreed for the freedom of worship for Catholics and that Nazis would no interfere with Catholic schools in Germany-For Hitler: The Pope agreed that his Catholic priests would not speak out about political matters. -This helped the Naizs in the early years when they where at their weakest. However as the 30's went on Hitler became more confident and began to break the terms, especially those surrounding education. By the time the Catholic Church realised it was too late.
  • -Most Germans were Protestant and many pastors either supported the Nazis or were prepared to accept them because they appreciated their anti-communism. -Nevertheless Hitler did not entirely trust the Church as it was so used to being independent. To solve his problem he created the Reich Church that he hoped most German Protestants would join. -Some people did but others refused and by 1936 some Protestants were openly opposing the Nazis. The most famous was Pastor Niemoller. In 1937 he was sent to a concentration camp.
3.1.3 Workers and Unemployment
3.1.3.1 Rearmament

Annotations:

  • The Treaty of Versailles had placed strict limits on the German armed forces however Hitler began to ignore these: -From 1933-39 spending on armaments increased from 3.5 to 26 billion. -In 1935 Hitler announced pans to increase the size of the army. It rose from 100,000 to 900,000 people by 1939 -Germany began to build an air force and increase the size of its navy.    
  • This increase in spending meant that more jobs were created: -More people were needed to join the armed forces, this created nearly a million jobs. -The increased spending on armaments meant an increased demand for textiles (uniforms), steel (weapons) and other products. This meant that employers were able to take on more workers.   Therefore rearmament worked in the Nazis' favour because: -It increased the number of jobs (again helping solve the problem of unemployment) -It made Germans feel pride in their country again as it seemed that Germany was becoming a great power once more.
3.1.3.2 The German Labour Front (SPD)

Annotations:

  • -Another of Hitler's problems was that most working class Germans supported his political enemies. (the Communists or Social Democrats). -He distrusted the worker's main organisations, the trade unions, and so banned them in 1933 and replaced them with the German Labour Front (DAF), which was a workers organisation controlled by the Nazis rather than the worker's themselves. -The DAF tried to keep workers happy by making sure that they were not treated badly by their employers. However worker lost their independence and many found their working hours had gone up.
3.1.3.3 Strength Through Joy (KDF)

Annotations:

  • -The Nazis set up the Strength Through Joy (KDF), which provided leisure activities for workers. -By the end of the 30's it was the worlds largest tour operator and its biggest programme provided workers with cheap holidays. -The KDF had 2 liners which offered cruises at bargain prices. A holiday to the Canary Islands cost just 62 marks, the equivalent of 2 weeks wages. -Loyal Nazi party workers were always given priority on the most attractive holidays.
3.1.3.4 The National Labour Service (RAD)

Annotations:

  • -In 1933 25% of the population was unemployed. The previous governments had done little to combat the problem so Hitler knew that he would not be able to win the support of most Germans unless he tackled this problem. -In 1933 the Nazis set up the National Labour Service (RAD) which provided manual labour for the unemployed. -Workers lived in military style camps, pay was low and food was often poor but for most this was better than being unemployed. -Many believed that what they where doing was very valuable, especially as  the RAD helped to build Germany's autobahn (motorway) system. -This meant that by the end of the 30's unemployment had been reduced substantially and the workers were less likely to complain about the Nazi Government as many were happy that they had actually "done something" to address the issue unlike previous governments.  
3.1.4 Women

Annotations:

  • The Nazis saw women as having a specific role in society: -To stay healthy in order to produce healthy children for the "new" Germany -To prioritise motherhood in order to raise their children and look after their families - this would enable men to concentrate on other matter such as work. -To learn the skills necessary to become good housewives.-Women where encouraged to concentrate on the 3K's - Kinder, Kirche and Küche (Children, Kitchen and Church).These policies reversed many of advances made by women since ww1
3.1.4.1 Motherhood

Annotations:

  • -Women were encouraged to join the German Women's Enterprise. -This was an organisation to teach "good motherhood" and how to be a "good" German woman. This was done through radio broadcasts and classes.
3.1.4.2 Female Employment

Annotations:

  • -Between 1933 and 1936 married women were fired from high ranking jobs such as Law, Medicine and some Civil Service positions. -The number of female teachers as university students was reduced considerably and only 10% of university students were allowed to be female. -From June 1933 interest free loans were made available to young women who withdrew from work in order to et married. -Employers were encouraged to discriminate positively in favour of male workers.
3.1.4.3 Marriage and Childbirth

Annotations:

  • -The Nazis wanted to encourage more to people to get married. -They also wanted to encourage women to have more children and therefore raise the overall birth rate.-This was because they wanted to build the next generation of Nazi Warriors. -They used several methods to do this.
3.1.4.3.1 Marriage Loans

Annotations:

  • -The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage (1933) gave loans of 1,000 marks (about 9 months wages) to couples who married as long as the women left work. -For each child the couple had 1/4 of the loan could be kept.
3.1.4.3.2 Mothers Cross

Annotations:

  • -Awards were given to women who had a substantial amount of children. -The Bronze Mothers Cross was given to mothers who had 4 children, Silver to those who had six and Gold to those who had 8.
3.1.4.3.3 Lebensborn Programme

Annotations:

  • -The Lebensborn Programme was an attempt to increase the population and improve racial standards. -It was set up by Himmler and the SS. -It originally provided homes for unmarried mothers of illegitimate children. -Later it became a kind of brothel fro SS men in impregnate young, unmarried women in order to created "racially correct"  children for adoption by loyal Nazis who could not have their on children. -By the end of the Nazi regime 11,000 children were born through this programme.  
3.1.4.3.4 Other Methods

Annotations:

  • -Income Tax was reduced in proportion to the number of children you had. If you had more than 6 you wouldn't have to pay it. -The anti-abortion law was introduced under the Weimar Republic however it was now very strictly enforced.
3.1.5 The Police State

Annotations:

  • This is where the government used the police to control people's lives. In a police state the police have a different role to the police in a democratic state, they have a political role - to root out the enemies of the government and to ensure that the government is obeyed unquestioningly. The Nazi's created a police state because they knew they had enemies and they knew they had a better chance of staying in power if their enemies "disappeared" and if people became too scared to speak out against them.
3.1.5.1 Concentration Camps

Annotations:

  • -Prisoners that were considered a danger to the state usually found themselves in concentration camps such as Dachau (Munich) and Sachsenhausen (Berlin).-The first inmate tended to be those who were most likely to oppose Nazi rule eg. communists, social democrats and trade unionists.-When the Nazis were more secure they began to order the arrest of other groups that thy considered "undesirable" - jes and other minority groups, prostitutes, homosexuals etc. - Here people were treated very badly and lived in very poor conditions. Many simply "disappeared".
3.1.5.2 The Law Courts

Annotations:

  • -If someone was given a trial for  crime, it was unlikely to be a fair one. This was because Hitler took measures to control judges by ensuring that they were members of a Nazi organisation. -For the most important trials only the most reliable judges ere chosen to ensure the Naizs got the verdicts they wanted.
3.1.5.3 The Gestapo

Annotations:

  • -This was a non-uniformed secret police under the control of the SS. Its leader was Himmler's second in command, Reinhard Heydrich. -Their job was to keep the public under control. The sort of things hey would do were: arrest people who spoke out against the Nazi's/Hitler, arrest people who made jokes about Hitler or other leading Nazis, or organise a network of informants, who hen reported anyone who was thought to be untrustworthy. -The Gestapo didn't wear uniforms so where impossible to identify, they could also arrest people without having to be responsible to the courts.  
3.1.5.4 The SS

Annotations:

  • -This was run by Heinrich Himmler and acted as Hitler's personal guard. -To join the SS you had to be a) a good Nazi and loyal to Hitler and b) racially acceptable. -The SS existed to carry out Hitler's will. When Hitler cam to power its first important role was to organise the Night of the Long Knives. -In the 1930's the SS grew in size and its role became more important. -One section (the Death's Head Unit) was put in charge of concentration camps. -Hitler tended to give them the jobs he couldn't trust anyone else with.
3.1.6 Propaganda and Censorship

Annotations:

  • Censorship = When the government has control over the things that people can write, say, show etc. For example when they stop the press printing some news, prevent public meetings or stop the publication of books. Propaganda= When the government portrays itself in a positive manner. For example, when the press publicises its view or when cinema shows films hat support Nazi ideas.
  • -Joseph Goebbels was the Minister of People's Enlightenment and Propaganda. It was his job to get Nazi ideas across to as many people as possible and to stop them from having access to alternate ideas. -Newspapers were heavily controlled by the Nazis. Ones that refused to cooperate with the Nazis were shut down, the rest where given daily briefings on the governments official position of a story. - The Nazis also decided what books "good Germans" should read. They decided that Jewish, socialists, communist and other writers should not be read as they might corrupt people. To get their point across , they organised mass book burnings in city centres. -Radio and cinema were also very important. Radio was the most common medium so to the Nazis controlling this was very important as it made it easier to get their ideas across. They made sure that radios were affordable so that every household would have one. Cinema was the most popular form of entertainment so film makers could not release a film without Goebbels approval.
3.1.7 Jews and Minorities

Annotations:

  • 1933 -Nazis boycotted Jewish businesses -Jews were banned from government jobs and joining the army -Jews were banned from restaurants 1935 - The Nuremburg laws were passed. -These took German Citizenship away from Jews -Jews were required to wear a yellow Star of David arm patch to tell them apart -Jews were required to travel in different parts of buses and trains -The Reich Law meant Germans and Jews were forbidden to marry. 1938 -Jews had to register all possessions and carry identity cards at all times. -Jewish Doctors, Dentists, Lawyers etc could not work for Germans -On then night of the 9th of November the "Kristallnatch" (night of broken glass) took place. - Jewish businesses, houses and places of worship were attacked. Many Jews were also attached or arrested. -The Jews themselves were forced to pay for the damages -This meant that the persecution was now out in the open. 1941 -Most Jews were either moved into ghettos or put in concentration camps.  
3.2 The Second World War
3.2.1 The Holocaust (Jews and Minorities)

Annotations:

  • The Nazis persecuted several different groups: Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, Homosexuals and Down-and-Outs (eg Alcoholics, Persistent Criminals and Prostitutes).
3.2.1.1 Ghettos

Annotations:

  • -Up to 400,000 people were crammed in a Ghetto so they were very overcrowded. Up to 2 families could be living in 1 room. -There was no running/clean water, no clothes, no fuel for fires. There was no food, children would have try to smuggle it through the walls. -People would get ill very easily and disease spread quickly. 1000's would die each week. There were no medicines or proper hospitals. Children suffered very badly from malnutrition. -The Nazis who guarded the ghetto would often beat the Jews so they tried to hide from them.
3.2.1.1.1 Warsaw Uprising

Annotations:

  • -The conditions in the Warsaw Ghetto were horrific.-The people had finally had enough when they realised that the Nazis were not actually sending people in the ghetto to work camps or to be rehoused but instead they were being sent to a concentration camp.-The people decided that they would rather die fighting than be mass murdered.-They set up a resistance group, the ZOB. In January 1943 fighters fired smuggled weapons at German Troops who were trying to take more Jews to the camp.-After a few days the troops retreated, this inspired the ghetto fighters to prepare for further action.-On the day of the final deportation the Jews in the ghetto fired their small supply of weapons at the German police and the Nazis. -The battle raged for almost a month between the Nazis and the ghetto fighters, with the Nazis killing anyone they saw and burning down houses. -Approximately 13,000 Jews were killed in the ghetto with 6,000 being burnt alive or dying from smoke inhalation. -Remaining  resident were captured and sent to concentration camps. -Only 100-300 Nazi soldiers were said to have been killed in combat.
3.2.1.2 Death Squads

Annotations:

  • - The Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units/death squads) were squads composed primarily of German SS and police personnel who would follow behind the German Army and kill Jews, and other group that the Nazis didn't like, that lived in the newly occupied territory. -Jews in a given locality were identified and taken to collection points. Thereafter they were marched or transported by truck to the execution site, where trenches had been prepared. In some cases the captive victims had to dig their own graves. -After the victims had handed over their valuables and undressed, men, women, and children were shot, either standing before the open trench, or lying face down in the prepared pit. -In the late summer of 1941, Heinrich Himmler, noting the psychological burden that mass shootings produced on his men, requested that a more convenient mode of killing be developed. -The result was the gas van, a mobile gas chamber surmounted on the chassis of a cargo truck which employed carbon monoxide from the truck's exhaust to kill its victims.-their "final solution".
3.2.1.3 The Final Solution

Annotations:

  • -Operation Barbarossa was the planned invasion of Russia  which would bring 4 million more Jews under Nazi control. -Himmler, head of the SS, oversaw the running of concentration camps and extermination camps in German occupied Europe. -The Wannsee Conference in 1942 as to decide what to do with the "problem of the Jews" (basically how to murder the Jew in German occupied territory efficiently). -It was decided that all Jews should be transported to specially built deaths camps where fit and healthy Jews would be worked to death and the weak ones should be killed straight away in gas chambers. -The meeting was held by the head/leading Nazis/SS/Gestapo men. However Hitler was not present.  
3.2.2 Rationing and Bombings

Annotations:

  • -Life on the German home-front was very hard. -Rationing, which had started in the 1930's, continued from 1939 to 1945. However the German citizens were willing to sacrifice a great deal in return for a better life after the war. -There were also many uncertainties brought by the air raid sirens and constant bombardment by allied bombers. -Bombs caused the deaths of 305,000 people and injured close to 800,000 people. 1.8 million homes were destroyed, 20 million people were deprived of basic utilities, and 5 million people evacuated to inadequate shelters. -People lived much, even most, of the time in air-raid shelters, bunkers and cellars. The disruption to people's daily lives, to their sleep, to the economy, was enormous. -The bombing campaign also had a devastating effect on industry, infrastructure and economy.
3.2.3 Total War

Annotations:

  • Total War = a war which is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the accepted rules of war are disregarded. -This meant that Hitler put all of Germany's resources into the war and had plans to invade all of Europe, and possibly the world.  
3.2.4 Opposition
3.2.4.1 Edelweiss Pirates

Annotations:

  • A group of youth who opposed Nazi rule, primarily the way the Hitler Youth taken over the lives of the German youth They posted anti-Nazi propaganda through letter boxes. They defied restrictions on movement by going on hiking and camping trips They did raise awareness for their cause however 6 of their members were hung
3.2.4.2 Religious Opposition

Annotations:

  • They were against the fact that Christians of Jewish descent would no longer be allowed a place in the Christian Church They set up the "Confessing Church" who opposed the Nazis and condemned those who were bystanders and allowed evil to happen.  They unfortunately didn't have much success as Pastor Martin Niemoller, who was the leader, was imprisoned and they were unable to change any ideas
3.2.4.3 July Plot

Annotations:

  • This happened on July 20th 1944 as a group of German generals wanted to kill Hitler to try to end World War 2. Count Claus von Stauffenberg placed a bomb in a briefcase under Hitler's table whilst in a meeting with him However it failed to kill Hitler as the briefcase was moved slightly away. The perpetrators were rounded up and executed by firing squad. This was the closest attempt on Hitler's life .  
3.2.4.4 White Rose

Annotations:

  • This was a group formed by students at the University of Munich in 1941. They formed after a minister spoke out in a sermon against the Nazi practice of euthanasia. They made 6 anti-war/anti-Nazi leaflets that were distributed in public. Some also engaged in graffiti campaign in Munich. They used a strategy of passive resistance. It was quite successful as it spread word however all the leaders were killed.
3.2.5 Changing Role of Women

Annotations:

  • During WW2 the role of women altered only out of necessity. -Women could join the army however only so they could do desk jobs to free up men to fight. By 1945 there were half a million women in the German Army. - Some women served in the SS however they had to meet certain criteria as they were destined to serve a model wives conforming to the standards of the regime; They must be between 17-30 years old and be taller than 1.65m. -Some SS women also worked as guards in the concentration camps. -Women were also used to fill gaps in industry to support the war effort, especially in munitions factories etc. By 1945 they numbered about 1.2 million.

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