How is coastal development increasingly at risk from and vulnerable to physical processes?

Juli Kohli
Mind Map by Juli Kohli, updated more than 1 year ago
Juli Kohli
Created by Juli Kohli about 5 years ago
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How is coastal development increasingly at risk from and vulnerable to physical processes?

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How is coastal development increasingly at risk from and vulnerable to physical processes?
1 Changes in sea level
1.1 Currently rising as ice-sheets and glaciers are melting due to GW
1.1.1 GW also causing thermal expansion of seawater - rising
1.1.1.1 Risen about 15cm in the last 100 years and 30cm by 2100
1.1.1.1.1 Sea levels also vary due to changes in tectonic movement
1.1.1.1.1.1 Will lead to severe flooding in small islands and flood plains such as Bangladesh
2 Storm Surges
2.1 Caused by atmospheric depressions
2.1.1 At sea they generate larger waves
2.1.1.1 A drop in atmospheric pressure can cause sea levels to rise and therefore flooding
2.1.1.1.1 London is at risk to storm surges because of the Thames and the buildings of historical and cultural value
3 Tsunami's
3.1 A series of very large waves generated by a disturbance on the ocean floor
3.1.1 Such as an earthquake, volcanic activity or a landslide
3.1.1.1 First signs include a small rise in the water level followed by deeply receding water level
3.1.1.1.1 Poses great threat to coastal settlements, especially in LEDC's with little warning
4 Coastal Erosion
4.1 Holderness Coastline
4.1.1 The Holderness coast is in the north east of England.
4.1.2 Strong prevailing winds creating longshore drift that moves material south along the coastline.
4.1.3 The cliffs are made of a soft boulder clay. It will therefore erode quickly, especially when saturated.
4.1.4 This is one of the most vulnerable coastlines in the world and it retreats at a rate of one to two metres every year.
4.1.5 Mappleton and the cliffs are no longer at great risk from erosion. The rock groynes have stopped beach material being moved south from Mappleton along the coast.
4.2 Types of erosion
4.2.1 Hydraulic action
4.2.1.1 Abrasion
4.2.1.1.1 Attrition
4.2.1.1.1.1 Solution
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 Wave Attack
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Freeze-thaw
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Biological action
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Corrosion
4.3 Factors affecting rate of erosion
4.3.1 Shape of coastline
4.3.1.1 Width of beach
4.3.1.1.1 Length and direction of fetch
4.3.1.1.1.1 Where the wave breaks
4.3.1.1.1.1.1 The height or steepness of wave
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Wave energy
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Rock resistance
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Structure
4.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Human activity
5 The coastal sediment system
5.1
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