Ethan Ham
Mind Map by Ethan Ham, updated more than 1 year ago
Ethan Ham
Created by Ethan Ham over 1 year ago



Resource summary

  1. Introduction to Geography
    1. The Branches of Geography
      1. Biological Geography
        1. Its field of study is the flora and fauna distribution and their relationship with the environment
          1. Botany and Zoology
        2. Human Geograohy
          1. Studies societies and how the occupation of territory affects them and the environment.
            1. Anthropology and Etnography
          2. Physical Geography
            1. Deals with the studies of natural phenomena
              1. hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, storms or tornados.
          3. Cultural Landscape
            1. Natural Landscape
              1. the one that has not been modified by human action.
              2. the one that has been created or changed by the people, in order to adapt it to their needs.
            2. The Earth, a Body of the Solar System
              1. The Solar System
                1. Theories
                  1. The Nebular theory was revealed by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1775) and by the French astronomer Pierre Simon, marquis of Laplace (1796), and suggests that the Sun, the planets and satellites (including the moon) of the Solar System were formed from a gas cloud slowly rotating until it contracted by the gravitational force. This theory was very famous during almost the whole 19th century, until the end of it and beginning of the 20th century new hypothesis came out: the catastrophic ones.
                    1. The Catastrophic theory proposes that the Solar System was formed from the Sun when a nearby star approached to it attracted by gravitational forces. Thus, large amount of matter was drawn in the form of drops and condensed as to form planets. However, this theory proposed by the American scientists Thomas Chamberlain and Forest Moulton, was abandoned in 1940 because it turned out to be naive, and the nebular theory was again generally accepted.
                      1. The Alastair G. W. Cameron theory supposes that the Solar System was formed from the evolution of a nebula that contracted because of the gravitational attraction between its own particles, and was caused by the explosion of a nearby supernova (a very old star).
                        1. Weizsäcker theory assumes that an original nebula was formed by a disk of hydrogen, dust and helium in rotational movement. The powerful centrifugal force caused by rotation, expelled a big portion of gases and dust, which by gravity stuck together and started to form bigger rock masses, which later would generate planets and satellites.
                2. Components of the solar system
                  1. Planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
                    1. Asteroids This term refers to rocky bodies, of different shapes and sizes that orbit around the Sun, especially in the inner Solar System.
                      1. Satellites They are small rocky bodies that move around bigger objects, especially planets
                        1. Meteoroids / meteorites / meteors Meteoroids are little chunks of rock or debris in space. They are solid bodies that origin from the destruction of comets or asteroids, and that cross the space with big velocity.
                          1. Comets The word comet means “hairy body” and they are low density bodies, basically cosmic snowballs of frozen gases, rock and dust roughly the size of a small town.
                            1. Sun It is a yellow star (i.e. middle-aged) that even located 150 million kilometers away from Earth; it still is its source of energy.
                3. Earth’s Structure
                  1. Earth’s Structure
                    1. Nucleus
                      1. Internal:
                        1. Internal Nucleus: Despite its very high temperature (around 5000°C), it is solid because of the great pressures that the superior layers exert on it. It is composed mainly of nickel and iron.
                        2. External:
                          1. External Nucleus: It is liquid and presents ascendant and descendant convective movements that produce electric currents, what in turn is the basis of the Earth’s magnetic field. It is composed mainly of molten iron, nickel, sulfur and silicon.
                        3. Mantle
                          1. Lower mantle. Also called interior mantle, is mainly composed of iron silicates and is solid. Upper mantle. Also called exterior mantle, it is located just below the Earth’s crust and is separated from it by the Mohorovicic discontinuity.
                          2. Crust
                            1. Oceanic crust: Basaltic rocks predominate. The oceanic crust covers the upper mantle and is the seat of the continental cortex. Continental crust: It is the outermost layer of Earth. Its thickness has barely 35 kilometers, but it is greater in the mountainous zones.
                            2. Lithosphere
                              1. It is Earth’s outermost layer and is formed by the crust and the upper mantle. It is formed also by 16 tectonic plates that move above one of the mantle’s most fluent zone, called asthenosphere. It supports the lithosphere, including the continents.
                            3. Geologicall eras
                              1. Earth crust dynamics
                                1. Bigger plates: North American, South American, Eurasian, African, Indian, Australian, Antarctic and Pacific. Smaller plates:
                                  1. Smaller plates: Cocos, Nazca, Caribbean, Arabic and Filipino.
                                  2. Volcanism and seismicity
                                    1. Volcanism is a consequence of the multiple movements of the tectonic plates.
                                      1. Seismicity An earthquake is the result of the collision between two tectonic plates, their displacement or rearrangement. These movements release energy in the form of seismic waves.
                                    2. The Atmosphere
                                      1. The Layers of the Atmosphere
                                        1. The atmosphere is composed of gases, mainly nitrogen (78%), and oxygen (21%).
                                        2. The Climate and the climate zones
                                          1. To comprehend this phenomenon, it is necessary to distinguish between the terms weather and climate because, although one may think that they are the same, they are very different things.
                                          2. Climate classification
                                          3. Geographical Science
                                            1. Methodological Principles
                                              1. Location
                                                1. Latitude
                                                  1. Longitude
                                                    1. Altitude
                                                    2. Causalty
                                                      1. It identifies the causes or the events that trigger a determined phenomenon or event and their consequences
                                                      2. Relation
                                                        1. It refers to the existing coordination between the geographical phenomena and the social and biological events that happen in a place.
                                                        2. Generality
                                                          1. It establishes the identification and comparison of the events and phenomenon development in space and time
                                                          2. Evolution
                                                            1. It studies the transformation that the geographical events and phenomena undergo
                                                          3. Earth Lines, Spots and Circles
                                                            1. Earth’s Representations
                                                              1. Historical maps: they represent human events; for example, the reach of the German troops during World War Human maps: they are useful to represent the infrastructure built up by humans such as highways, dams, railroads, etc. Physical maps: they represent physical phenomena, for example, the distribution of different kinds of soil, climate zones, etc.
                                                                1. Topographical maps: they are used to locate rivers, towns, cities, and communication means. Land use maps: they represent the intended use, such as agricultural, farm land, residential or industrial areas. Geological maps: they represent mine location and rock distribution. Edaphological maps: they represent the different kinds of soil. Climatological maps: they represent the different climates occurring in the regions of Earth. Urban map: they indicate the distribution of streets, suburbs, schools, banks, hospitals, etc.
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