Germany 1918-39

Cerys Aplin
Mind Map by , created 23 days ago

A mind map showing the stages of Germany from the rise and fall of The Weimar Republic to the rise and fall of the Nazi Dictatorship. (1918-1939).

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Cam Burke
Created by Cam Burke over 4 years ago
Cerys Aplin
Copied by Cerys Aplin 23 days ago
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1 The Weimar Republic

Annotations:

  • Given the name 'Weimar Republic' because the base was set in the countryside of Weimar, this was because Berlin was unstable and full of revolts.
1.1 Early Problems 1919-23
1.1.1 Enemies

Annotations:

  • In 1919 the republic had many enemies. Was it sensible to give rights to those who wanted to destroy it?
  • The army generals were the same as the ones who had fought under the kaiser. They wanted the Kaiser to return.
  • The Judges were the same as the ones who had served under the Kaiser. They had sympathy with those who were against the Republic.
1.1.2 Coalitions

Annotations:

  • Proportional representation encouraged lots of small parties. It was difficult for one party to get majority, so goverments formed coalitions. This led to a weaker goverment filled with conflicted views.
1.1.3 Opposition on the 'Left'

Annotations:

  • Who? The Spartacist League Communists in Germany known as the Sparticists, wanted a revolution like Russia 1917.
  • When? Where? In January, 1919, activists led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg seized power in Berlin.
  • Consequences: Within weeks, the revolt had been crushed by regular troops and ex-soliders (Freikorps). The communist leaders were assassinated.
1.1.4 Opposition on the 'Right'

Annotations:

  • Who & What? The Kapp Putsch The Kapp Putsch were german nationalists who felt that democracy was weak. They wanted to see a strong Germany led under one leader.
  • When & Where? In March 1920, Dr. Wolfgang Kapp (an extreme nationalist) and a bunch of freikorps seized power in Berlin.
  • Consequence: Kapp was not supported by the workers in factories. The workers, by influence of Ebert, organized a strike in Berlin. Within hours the German capital had came to a halt, all gas, water and coal stopped. After 4 days, Kapp and his supporters gave up and fled. Ebert returned to power.
1.1.5 French Occupation of the Ruhr

Annotations:

  • By 1922, Germany could no longer afford to pay reparations and announced it. They asked for more time but was declined by the French Goverment. In 1923, the french and belgian goverments sent troops into the Ruhr, the centre of german industry.
  • Consequences: The German workers went on strike but it was to no avail. The french set in their own workers, and arrested the leaders of the strike. The German economy ground to a halt.
1.1.5.1 Germany missed a reparations payment so French troops invaded to collect the raw materials that were owed. The government called for passive resistance (strike) against the soldiers coming in and refused to work
1.1.5.1.1 The occupation of the Ruhr crippled Germany because 80% of German iron, steel and coal were there. It increased Germany's debt and anger towards the government
1.1.6 Hyperinflation

Annotations:

  • The problems of making the reparation encouraged the republic to print more money. However, printing more money caused prices to rise out of control.
  • Consequences: Peoples savings became worthless.(This hit the middle class partically hard). People on fixed incomes, such as pensioners, suffured badly. Prices rose much faster than incomes, so people starved as they couldnt afford food.(This hit the working class the hardest)
2 The Nazi Party
2.1 Munich Putsch, 1923.
2.1.1 Reasons
2.1.1.1 Unpopularity of W. Republic

Annotations:

  • Due to French Occupation of The Ruhr & Hyperinflation.
2.1.1.2 1922, Italian March

Annotations:

  • In 1922, the Italian leader, Benito Mussolini, ad seized power after a march in Rome. This inspired Adolf.
2.1.1.3 Support

Annotations:

  • Hitler was convinced he would get popular support in munich.
2.1.2 What Happened
2.1.2.1 November 8th 1923

Annotations:

  • Hitler forced members of the Bavarian Goverment to join him, at gunpoint. Their leader, Von Kahr, was reluctant to do so and alerted the army and police.
2.1.2.2 November 9th 1923

Annotations:

  • Bavarian police opened fire on Nazi SA at their march and 16 Nazis were killed.
2.1.2.3 November 10th 1923

Annotations:

  • Hitler and Ludendorff were arrested and charged with high treason.
2.1.3 Consequences

Annotations:

  • Hitler recieved the minimum sentence and many others recieved light sentences too.
  • Hitler served his sentenced in a comfortable Fortress and spent his time writing his memoirs. These memoirs were published as a book, 'Mein Kampf'.
  • Hitlers trail had given him a national audience and the chance to get publicity.
2.2 Increased support, 1929-33.
2.2.1 Advantageous 'Depression'

Annotations:

  • The depression caused a period of chaos in Germany. No goverment could seem to solve Germanys economic crisis and by 1932 unemployement stood at 6 million. Therefore, Hitler became popular by promising 'work and bread'
2.2.2 1932-33

Annotations:

  • During the general election of 1932, the Nazis became the largest reichstag party and hitler demanded to be chancellor.
  • Hindenburg was suspicous of Hitler and refused. Instead he appointed Franz von Papen. To achieve his aims, von Papen arranged a general election (1932). The Nazis lost some support but Papen did not get the support he needed.
  • It was clear Hindenburg couldnt work witha chancellor who did not have majority support. So, in December 1932, Hindenburg replaced von Papen with von Schleicher. Within a month von Schleicher was forced to resign.
  • Hindenburg and Papen decide to put Hitler as chancellor and claim they can control him once he is in power. January 20th 1933, Hitler became German Chancellor and Papen,Vice-Chancellor
3 Treaty of Versailes
3.1 The Treaty was considered a 'diktat' a dictated peace as Germany had no say in its terms.The German people didn't think they lost the war and hated the politicians for signing the treaty
3.1.1 The politicians became known as the 'November Criminals'. This was because the German people felt like they had been 'stabbed in the back' by its won Government.
3.2 Terms of the Treaty
3.2.1 Military
3.2.1.1 Germany was no longer allowed to have the RAF
3.2.1.2 Only allowed to have 100,000 soldiers in the Army
3.2.1.3 Only allowed to have 6 battleships and no submarines
3.2.2 Land and Money
3.2.2.1 Germany lost Alsace and Lorraine and all 11 of their Colonies. Also, Rhineland was demilitarised
3.2.2.1.1 Germany was forced to pay 6.6 Billion for Reparations when the sum was decided in 1921
4 Left-Wing and Right-wing Challenges
4.1 Spartacist Uprising 1919
4.1.1 Wanted a communist government like in Russia so they took over the government newspaper and telegraph bureau
4.1.1.1 The government used the Freikorps to crush the rebellion and the Spartacist leader, Rosa Luxembourg, was killed
4.2 Kapp Putsch
4.2.1 The Freikorps were afraid of being broken up due to the Treaty of Versailles so they decided to march on Berlin
4.2.1.1 President Ebert asked the Army to help but they refused and the Government had to call a general strike to end the rebellion
4.2.1.1.1 Kapp - the leader of the Kapp Putsch- was sent to prison for trying to overthrow the Government