The Second Arab-Israeli war- The Suez Sinai War, 1956

Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Mind Map on The Second Arab-Israeli war- The Suez Sinai War, 1956, created by UGQS786 on 02/20/2015.

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Created by UGQS786 over 4 years ago
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The Second Arab-Israeli war- The Suez Sinai War, 1956
1 Causes
1.1 Israeli desire to strengthen and expand the state of Israel
1.2 Nasser's actions to strengthen Egypt's military and economy. This worried the British and French as a stronger Egypt may threaten their influence in the middle east. Also, they controlled the Suez Canal which may be taken and this would damage their trade links, especially oil as otherwise they would have to transport it around the whole of Africa. Therefore they refused to provide weapons to Egypt, this actually triggered the taking over of the Suez Canal. This is because Egypt turned to the USSR for weapons, Britain in protest of this cancelled their loans for the Aswan Dam, and so Nasser took over the canal claiming he would pay for the construction of the dam using tolld charged at the canal.
1.3 Secret negotiations between Israel, Britain and France to strike at Israel
1.4 Israel's desire to crush 'fedayeen' groups whose bases were in Egypt and who were supported by Nasser.
1.5 Nasser's aims to destroy Israel by strengthening their military, supporting the 'fedayeen' and blockading Israel's southern shipping route.
2 Key phases of the war
2.1 The first stage , as was planned beforehand, was when Israel attacked Egypt. On 29th October 1956 Israel attacked Egypt in Sinai. Within a week the Israelis had occupied all of the Sinai peninsula and were striking at the canal zone.
2.2 The second stage, as was planned, was for the British and French forces to intervene supposedly to keep the peace but in reality to attack Egypt. However, when they attacked they met widespread condemnation from the international community. Most serious was the criticism from President Eisenhower who was concerned about what problems would arise in the middle east from this, especially the withdrawal of oil supplies and the possible intervention of the USSR. When the US threatened to withdraw economic support for Britain the attack collapsed and they withdrew.
3 Consequences
3.1 For Israel
3.1.1 Israel removed all the fedayeen bases in the Sinai
3.1.2 Reopened the Gulf of Aqaba
3.1.3 Israel was confirmed as being a tough military force which the Arabs would need concerted strength to destroy ensuring that Israel would not face a direct war for some years
3.1.4 A UN 'buffer zone' on the border of Egypt and Israel helped to assist in Israel's protection from the south.
3.2 For Arabs
3.2.1 Nasser's reputation as a man striving for Arab freedom was enhanced
3.2.2 Egypt's military weakness had been shown.
3.2.3 The problem of Palestine and the refugees was not solved and Israel had just been strengthened.
3.3 For superpowers
3.3.1 The USSR began supplying Egypt with weapons and other equipment.
3.3.2 The USA was persuaded that the conflict needed urgent attention, one cause was the use of oil as a weapon, also after the war Eisenhower issued what was to be known as the 'Eisenhower Doctrine' which said that the USA was prepared to give assistance to any country in the Middle East under threat from direct aggression from another state. This was particularly aimed at preventing the USSR increasing their influence. Furthermore to counter the Soviet supply of weapons the USA began to do the same for Israel and in the 1960s they approved, for the first time, the sale of arms to Israel.
3.4 For Palestinian Terrorist groups
3.4.1 More organised Palestinian groups developed out of the fedayeen after the war such as the PLO.

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