Philip II (1556-1598)


Mind Map on Philip II (1556-1598), created by sophie.jerden on 03/16/2015.
Mind Map by sophie.jerden, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sophie.jerden about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Philip II (1556-1598)
  1. 1556- Castile, Aragon, Habsburg Lands in Italy, Spanish Lands in New World, Burgunian lands (Netherlands and Franche Comte)
    1. Monarquia- Seperate states with one ruler!
      1. Encircled France= conflict
      2. Wives
        1. 1. Maria of Portugal 1543-45 Died giving birth to Don Carlos
          1. 2. Mary I of England 1554-58
            1. 3. Elizabeth of Valois 1559-68
              1. 1568- Don Carlos died same year as EofV. Dutch propaganda- The Black Legend of Philip II was spread during Dutch Revolt that Philip killed wife and son so he could marry Anne
              2. 4. Anne of Austria 1570-80 (mother of Philip III)
              3. Finance: reduce Expenditure and increase income
                1. Bankruptcy= Peace
                  1. 1557 Bankrupt 1559 Chateau Cambresis
                    1. 1575 Bankrupt 1578 Truce with Turks
                      1. 1596 Bankrupt 1598 Vervins
                      2. Expenditure
                        1. Royal House hold costs
                          1. Cuts household expense
                          2. Ottomans= Lepanto: 1.1m (1571)
                            1. England= Armada:10m (1588)
                              1. Dutch Revolt: 80m (1566-1600)
                                1. Not prepared to scale back military spending. No communication between Council of War and Council of Finance
                                  1. 1576- Sack of Antwerp
                                2. New palace- El Escorial: 5m
                                3. Income
                                    1. Alcabala- 10% sales tax
                                      1. Servicio- subsidies granted by Cortes
                                          1. Castile Tax
                                          2. Increase income
                                            1. Castilian Cortes granted regular subsidies.
                                              1. Custom duties raised / new ones introduced.
                                                1. Sisa (on basic commodities- hits poor hardest)
                                                  1. Millones (wine, Oil and Vinegar)
                                                  2. Philip takes direct control of custom houses
                                                    1. Church- Royal Third/ 1/3 of tithes.
                                                      1. Three Graces
                                                      2. Quinto Real/ Royal FIfth.
                                                        1. Silver and Gold imports peak at 43 million (1591-95)
                                                          1. Taxation of NW settlers & Naitives
                                                            1. Custon duties on NW trade
                                                              1. Venality- led to corruption/inefficiency.
                                                                1. alienation- selling Crown land to grandees.
                                                                  1. Juras sold (government bonds)
                                                              2. Social/economic changes
                                                                1. Vaneer of Pre-eminence (world leader)?- Dominates Europe & NW. Wealth from NW. Leading fight against Turks. SO MUCH POTENTIAL.... but internal issues.
                                                                  1. increasing population. Particularly in Castle
                                                                    1. increasing demand for food- not met by agricultural production and failed harvest= high food prices and inflation.
                                                                      1. vagrancy and brigandage increases
                                                                      2. DECLINES in 1600s- men fighting, high rates of celibacy, famine and plague.
                                                                      3. well established wool trade in North and NW Trade in the South.
                                                                        1. wool trade with Flanders, French and English interupted by Dutch Revolt and conflict with France and England.
                                                                          1. Drop in demand of spanish wool due to changing fashions, dutch revolt and foreign competition. Farmers change to Arable farming- still does not meet population demand so spain has to import from N. Europe in exchange for fish and wool.
                                                                            1. Large parts of Spain cannot be farmed- to arid, high above sea level, fear of piracy.
                                                                            2. 1561Madrid made the capital- population shifts from nearby towns to capital.
                                                                              1. Good seaborne Trade.Med coast trade links with Italy and the Levant
                                                                                1. Spain is not an economic unit- autonomous self-sufficient regions, poor inland transport networks, vadnitry, mistrust
                                                                                  1. Heavy toll on roads/bridges/rivers stifles internal trade
                                                                                    1. Castile exports raw goods and imports manufactured goods!
                                                                                      1. NO INDUSTRY
                                                                                      2. Seville/ Casa de Contratacion- wealth is illusory. money goes straight to pay debt(never enters economy)
                                                                                        1. NW- source of bullion & exotic commodities.
                                                                                          1. wars disrupted trade & put off investors
                                                                                            1. INFLATION
                                                                                              1. ship building in Bilbao and Barcelona
                                                                                                1. SIlk from Valencia and Granada
                                                                                                2. England
                                                                                                  1. 1554-58 Married to Mary I
                                                                                                    1. 1561-stops Pope excommunicating Liz I
                                                                                                      1. 1568-Liz stops spanish ships reaching Neth
                                                                                                        1. 1570s-supports Drakes attacks
                                                                                                          1. 1585- treaty of Nonsuch:England allies with Dutch. Reaction to treaty of Joinville 1584. fear of a catholic alliance with spanish and french.
                                                                                                            1. 1587- Mary scot executed
                                                                                                              1. 1588- SPanish Armada:FAIL
                                                                                                            2. France
                                                                                                              1. initlially at war (H/V) but bankruptcy (1557)= Chateau Cambresis (1559)= 30 years
                                                                                                                1. 1562- FWOR
                                                                                                                  1. 1584- Henry of Navarre is heir so Phil SIgns treaty of Joinville (send money and troops to french rebels)
                                                                                                                    1. 1590/92 invades France to stop Henry becoming King
                                                                                                                      1. 1593- Pope Converts Henry
                                                                                                                        1. spain do not pull troops out. France declares war (1959)
                                                                                                                          1. 1596-bankruptcy= 1598 Vervins
                                                                                                                          2. Turks
                                                                                                                            1. 1551-Tripoli 1555- Bougie
                                                                                                                              1. 1570- Holy League (Pope/ Genoa/ Venice)
                                                                                                                                1. 1571- Lepanto 30,00 dead turks. 35/230 turkish ships left
                                                                                                                                  1. 1578- Truce. Philip needs to focus on N Europe. Pope NOT HAPPY
                                                                                                                                  2. Annexation of Portugual 1580
                                                                                                                                    1. Religion- Devout Catholic
                                                                                                                                      1. Refused to rule over heretics/ Protestants
                                                                                                                                        1. Council of Trent (1562-63)- uniformity in worship and dress. growth of religious literature/art. jesuits ecouraged.
                                                                                                                                          1. Inquisition
                                                                                                                                            1. 1559-62= 6 Auto de fe. after 1562 only 6 protestant cases
                                                                                                                                              1. degree of censorship. index of banned books. block spanish from studying abroad= spain cut off from eternal cultural influences
                                                                                                                                                1. Counter Reformation= Dutch Revolt 1566
                                                                                                                                                2. Dutch revolt 1566
                                                                                                                                                  1. South= loyal North= break away
                                                                                                                                                    1. high taxation to fund spanish was with france. Heresy. Nobility alienated from Philips Government. Absenteeism. Feel like a spanish colony.
                                                                                                                                                      1. Philips new religious policies- 14 new bishoprics. inquisition. reorganised catholic church admin.
                                                                                                                                                        1. 1576 Sack of Antwerp.
                                                                                                                                                          1. Pacification of Ghent
                                                                                                                                                        2. Revolt of Moriscos- 1568-70
                                                                                                                                                          1. Government
                                                                                                                                                            1. 1561-centralises government around madrid- more efficient
                                                                                                                                                              1. timetables council meetings
                                                                                                                                                                1. Letrados as secretaries- loyal
                                                                                                                                                                  1. 1580s- Juntas for specific issues.
                                                                                                                                                                    1. philip- didnt delegate. workaholic. control frea= inefficient
                                                                                                                                                                      1. 5 new councils (council of Italy/portugal/Flanders
                                                                                                                                                                        1. uncil independent of each other= conflict
                                                                                                                                                                          1. fractionalism in government
                                                                                                                                                                          2. New World
                                                                                                                                                                            1. 1569 Council of indies
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Virceroys & Audencias, balance each other= effective
                                                                                                                                                                                1. conquistadores hard to control
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Philip gave settlers the right to explot indian labour
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. distance means law is difficult to enforce
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 1591-1595: 42,000,000
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Bullion- inflation. enabled borrowing, funded wars, bribes for portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Prestige
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